- Conference Proceedings2017Migratory livestock grazing significantly impacts rangeland vegetation and wild-ungulate population in the Indian Trans-Himalaya12th International Mammalogical Congress, 2017. Perth, Australia
Intense livestock grazing outcompetes wild-ungulates in low-productivity rangelands. This is a long-standing and highly debated conservation problem globally. We examined impacts of migratory livestock grazing on Trans-Himalayan rangeland and Asiatic ibex, a wild-ungulate and primary prey of the endangered snow leopard. Vegetation and ibex were sampled in an intensely grazed (livestock density 63 sheep-goat/km2) and ungrazed areas, during spring (before-grazing), summer (during-grazing) and autumn (after-grazing). Proportionate to vegetated area, independent randomly laid 1mX1m plots were sampled for vegetation cover and biomass estimation (Cover: NUngrazed=237; NGrazed=127; Biomass: NUngrazed=119; NGrazed=64). Ibex density and young:adult-female ratios were estimated by repeatedly sampling 17 trails using double-observer method across both treatments for the three time periods and two consecutive years. Graminoid and herb biomass were significantly higher in ungrazed than grazed area (ANOVA; Graminoid: FTreatment=16.05; P=<0.001; Herb: FTreatment=22.75; P=< 0.001). Overall vegetation composition was dissimilar across ungrazed and grazed area (Morisita Index 0.18), however, palatable species composition was similar (Morisita Index 0.70). Biomass of palatable species was 2.25 times higher in ungrazed than grazed area. Total off-take of dry forage by migratory livestock from grazed pastures (61 km2) was 10,658 kgs km-2 over two months of grazing. Ibex density was 1.80-7.0 times higher in ungrazed than grazed area in 2015, while 2.45-4.7 times higher in ungrazed than grazed area during 2016. Ibex yearling:adult-female ratio was six times higher in ungrazed than grazed area. Significant reduction in forage availability lowered ibex density and yearling:adult-female ratios in grazed area, suggesting migratory livestock outcompetes ibex through exploitative competition.
- Popular Article2016The Bay Island Lizard: My Work CompanionsSanctuary Asia, January. http://www.sanctuaryasia.com/magazines/features/10184-the-bay-island-lizard-my-work-companions.html
- Journal Article2016Field to a forest: Patterns of forest recovery following shifting cultivation in the Eastern HimalayaForest Ecology & Management http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.01.006
The patterns of vegetation recovery in shifting cultivation landscapes that undergo a cycle of clearing, cultivation and forest regeneration are not well understood in Asian tropical forests. We determined for- est recovery patterns by comparing species composition, richness and forest structure in early and late fallows formed following shifting cultivation and in an uncut forest site in a mid-elevation subtropical forest in the Indian Eastern Himalaya. We also examined changes in functional traits of tree species to understand recovery processes with succession. Tree species richness in the 12, 25 and 50-year old sites was 37%, 54% and 82% the value of the richness in uncut forest, respectively, while basal area was 33%, 25% and 41% of the value in uncut forest, respectively. Species composition recovery, however, was low; with even the oldest fallow (50-year fallow) being less than 50% similar to uncut forest in terms of composition. Successional sites that recover over long periods may differ compositionally from uncut forest within a shifting cultivation landscape as these forests are often prone to other anthropogenic dis- turbances. Functional trait analysis revealed that early fallows were colonized by tree species that are animal-dispersed, insect-pollinated with small fruits and seeds, whereas uncut forest and late succes- sional forests were dominated by species that were tall, self-dispersed, wind-pollinated and of high wood density that are dominant mature forest species in the Himalaya. These results are in contrast with the patterns in functional traits of tree species in successional sites from the Neotropics. This points to the importance of site-specificity in succession following shifting cultivation.
- Journal Article2016Shifting to settled cultivation: Changing practices among the Adis in Central Arunachal Pradesh, north-east IndiaAmbio doi 10.1007/s13280-016-0765-x
In the hilly tropics, although shifting cultivation is a widespread practice, government policies have attempted to replace it with other land-uses. However, several factors determine whether farming communities can make the shift. We tried understanding the factors that facilitate or impede the shift to settled cultivation through interviews with the Adi tribe in north-east India. Although settled cultivation was initiated in the sixties, about 90 % of the families practice shifting cultivation, observing 13 festivals associated with the annual agricultural calendar. Our results indicate that the economic status of a household affected the ability to undertake settled cultivation, while labour availability is important for shifting cultivation. Often, these nuances are ignored in government policies. We conclude that future policies should be mindful of cultural and socio-economic factors that affect the community and of the social-ecological resilience of the landscapes and not use a one-size-fits-all strategy.
- Journal Article2016Response of the red fox to expansion of human habitation in the Trans-Himalayan mountainsEuropean Journal of Wildlife Research, 62: 131-136, DOI 10.1007/s10344-015-0967-8Download
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Habitat modification through rural and urban expansions negatively impacts most wildlife species. However, anthropogenic food sources in habitations can benefit certain species. The red fox Vulpes vulpes can exploit anthropogenic food, but human subsidies sometimes also sustain populations of its potential competitor, the free-ranging dog Canis familiaris. As human habitations expand, populations of free-ranging dog are increasing in many areas, with unknown effects on wild commensal species such as the red fox. We examined occurrence and diet of red fox along a gradient of village size in a rural mountainous landscape of the Indian Trans-Himalaya. Diet analyses suggest substantial use of anthropogenic food (livestock and garbage) by red fox. Contribution of livestock and garbage to diet of red fox declined and increased, respectively, with increasing village size. Red fox occurrence did not show a clear relationship with village size. Red fox occurrence showed weak positive relationships with density of free-ranging dog and garbage availability, respectively, while density of free-ranging dog showed strong positive relationships with village size and garbage availability, respectively. We highlight the potential conservation concern arising from the strong positive association between density of free-ranging dog and village size.
- Dataset2016Data from: Response of the red fox to expansion of human habitation in the Trans-Himalayan mountainshttp://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.5hs50
- Journal Article2016Providing more protected space for tigers Panthera tigris: a landscape conservation approach in the Western Ghats, southern IndiaOryx 50(2): 336–343Download
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Conservation of large carnivores is challenging as they face various threats, including habitat loss and fragmentation. One of the current challenges to tiger Panthera tigris conservation in India is the conversion of habitat to uses that are incompatible with conservation of the species. Bringing more tiger habitat within a protected area system and in the process creating a network of connected protected areas will deliver dual benefits of wildlife conservation and protection of watersheds. Focusing on the southern Indian state of Karnataka, which holds one of the largest contiguous tiger populations, we attempted to address this challenge using a conservation planning technique that considers ecological, social and political factors. This approach yielded several conservation successes, including an expansion of the protected area network by 2,385 sq km, connection of 23 protected areas, and the creation of three complexes of protected areas, increasing the protected area network in Karnataka from 3.8 to 5.2% of the state’s land area. This represents the largest expansion of protected areas in India since the1970s. Such productive partnerships between government officials and conservationists highlight the importance of complementary roles in conservation planning and implementation.
- Book Chapter2016Richness and size distribution of large herbivores in the HimalayaIn: Asian large herbivore ecology, Ahrestani, F., Sankaran, M. (eds.), Springer.Download
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Species diversity across several taxa ranging from plants to vertebrates is reported to decrease with altitude, or to show a mid-elevation peak in mountain systems. Plant biomass availability for herbivores is similarly expected to decline with altitude as temperature becomes limiting. However, the relationship between herbivore species richness and altitude has not been examined in detail. We show that while the overall regional pattern (gamma-richness) for 25 large-herbivore species (56 % grazers, 44 % browsers/mixed feeders) in the Western Himalayas shows a mid-elevation peak, the species richness of grazers increases nearly monotonically with altitude peaking at 4000–5000 m. Median body mass of herbivores decreased with altitude, suggesting greater suitability of higher elevations for smaller bodied herbivores. We propose that seasonal altitudinal migration patterns, biogeographic influences, increases in the abundance of graminoids, and an increase in plant nutrients with altitude might explain the unusual high grazer species richness at higher altitudes in the Himalayan Mountains.
- Popular Article2016The silence of the lambsCaravan, AprilDownload
PDF, 1.41 MB
A migratory herder in Pin Valley, Himachal Pradesh, goes into a new area with his flock of sheep-goat in search of pasture. Everything was going fine, but then, suddenly, he lost 10-15 of his sheep. How did he and other fellow herders solve the weird challenge of mysterious death of sheep?
- Popular Article2016A four-horned flash of goldThe Hindu in School, 6 January
- Popular Article2016Rendezvous with GabbarThe Hindu in School, 3 February
- Popular Article2016River under attackThe Hindu in School, 10 February
- Popular Article2016New year on the reefThe Hindu in School, 22 March
- Popular Article2016Is oil palm expansion good for Mizoram?The Frontier Despatch, March 18 – 24, 2016, pages 6-7.
- Popular Article2016Why Mizoram must revive, not eradicate, jhumThe Frontier Despatch, March 4 – 10, 2016, page 6.
- Journal Article2016Shifting agriculture supports more tropical forest birds than oil palm or teak plantations in Mizoram, northeast IndiaThe Condor: Ornithological Applications 18: 345–359.Download
PDF, 2.11 MB
Please see link/PDF for English Abstract. Mizo translation below.
Mizoram, India hmarchhakah oil palm leh teak hmun aiin tlangram lo neih hi ramhnuai sava te tan a hnemhnanawm zawk
Ramngaw leh thlai chi hrang hrang chinna thlawhhma te thlai mal chin bingna atana chán zel hi khawvel pum a humhalhtu te ngaimawh a ni ta. India hmarchhakah pawh, tlang mi te thlawhhma chu, thlai mal (teak, oil palm)-in a lan chho mek bawk. Oil palm leh teak hmun te, chulram (kum 0 – 8 léng) leh lo (ringthar) te leh Dampa ngawpui, Mizoram, India-a mi te kan khaikhin a. Zirbing tura thlan chi nga te hi hmun sawmhnih-ah theuh thendarh a ni a, chumi chhunga thingkung awm te, sava chi hrang awm te, an bit dan leh an tam dan te zirchian a ni. Oil palm hmunah thingkung a tlem ber a, teak hmunin a dawt a, lo leh ngawah te a tam ber thung. Loa thingkung bit zawng (4.3/100m 2 ) hi oil palm hmun (0.5) aiin a sang a, ngawchhung (6.8 – 8.2) a sang fal hle, oil palm hmunah mau a awm lo a, chulah erawh mau a tam thung (25/50m 2 ). Sava chi 107 (ramhnuai-sava 94, dai-sava 13) chhinchiahah oil palm hmunah a tlem ber a (10), teak hmunin a dawt (38); Ngaw hmawr (58) leh chhungril (70) te chu ringthar (50) aiin a sang zawk. Loah leh ngawa ramhnuai sava tam dan a thuhmun a, oil palm hmun aiin 304%-in a sang a, teak hmun aiin 87%-in a sang bawk. Thlai mal chin-bingna aiin lo leh ngawah sava chi thuhmun a tam zawk. Chulramah thing leh mau a than chak avang te, mau hmunin ngai a awh leh hma avangin lo neih hi sava humhalh nan a tha zawk. Lo neih tihmasawn tur zawnga leilung enkawl dan duan chhuah hi a tul takzet a, vahchap sawngbawl dan tha zawk te, tualto thlai uar tur te leh thlaimal chin- bingna hmun hnaia luikam thing chi dang te humhalh tura inkaihhruai a tul hle.
Tawngkam hman bik: sava chi ho, ngawpui, thlawhhma, lo, Tectona grandis, Elaeis guineensis, thilnung tinreng tamna, leilung hmandan tihdanglam
- Book Chapter2016Livestock Predation by Snow Leopards: Conflicts and the Search for SolutionsIn Snow leopards: Biodiversity of the World eds (McCarthy T, Mallon D.) Academic press pp 59- 66.
- Book Chapter2016South Asia: India. In Snow leopards. Biodiversity of the world: conservation from genes to landscapes. Series editor: Philip J. Nyhus, Volume editors: Thomas McCarthy, David Mallon.Elsevier - Academic Press, Pages 457-469, ISBN: 978-0-12-802213-9Download
PDF, 4.31 MB
India has a rich natural history record from the Himalaya spanning over a century. In this paper we provide an overview of existing knowledge on snow leopard, especially from the more recent studies. A knowledge gap analysis revealed barely 3% of its range is relatively well studied, although snow leopards occur pervasively across ca. 100,000 km2 in the Indian Himalaya. Only 37% of its range appears to be ‘good’ habitat. Based on recent density estimates and their extrapolation over the range, India is likely to support about 500 snow leopards. Threats vary regionally, but livestock grazing by migratory herders and recent developmental pressures appear to be the most serious conservation issues threatening snow leopard and other wildlife in the snow leopard range. Given the pervasive snow leopard occurrence and human pressures, the general consensus and national strategy is to formulate and implement knowledge based, participatory programmes over large landscapes.
- Art & Literary2016Elephant crossingOrion 35(3): 6. (May | June 2016)
- Dataset2016Long-lived groupers require structurally stable reefs in the face of repeated climate change disturbances.Karkarey R, Kelkar N, Lobo AS, Alcoverro T, Arthur R (2014) Data from: Long-lived groupers require structurally stable reefs in the face of repeated climate change disturbances. Dryad Digital Repository. http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.d7j02