- Journal Article2018Understanding perceptions of people towards lion-tailed macaques in a fragmented landscape of the Anamalai Hills, Western Ghats, IndiaPrimate Conservation 32: 11 pp.Download
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The fragmentation of the rainforests of India’s Western Ghats mountains has left the endemic lion-tailed macaque sur- viving in numerous forest patches in a mosaic of commercial tea and coffee plantations. On the Valparai Plateau, Anamalai Hills, some macaque groups have evidently altered their behavior, becoming habituated to people, suffering from frequent roadkill, and facing problems related to people feeding them and their use of open waste dumps. We carried out a questionnaire survey around three rainforest fragments (Puthuthottam, Korangumudi, Old Valparai) and the town of Valparai to understand people’s percep- tions towards macaques, and to identify appropriate conflict-mitigation measures. Macaques near Korangumudi and Old Valparai rarely ventured near residences, and most people were unaware of their presence. Respondents in and around Puthuthottam were aware of the macaques, and most (68%) had negative perceptions of them because the macaques often visited houses in the area. Most respondents (87%) believed that macaques visited houses in search of food and garbage, and 84% reported that macaques were doing this only over the last 10 years. Housing conditions influenced people's perceptions: people living in tiled-roof houses that were vulnerable to incursions by the macaques had higher negative perceptions (84.5%) compared to people living in asbestos-roof and concrete structures. To reduce negative interactions with people and promote harmonious human-macaque co-existence, we suggest implementing a combination of measures that would involve plantation management, conservation orga- nizations, and the state forest and municipal authorities. The measures include cost-effective monkey-proofing of houses, regular garbage collection, preventing open waste disposal and the feeding of macaques, mitigating the effects of roads, and promoting people’s awareness, rainforest restoration, and the use of native shade trees in plantations.
- Journal Article2018Ants on Clerodendrum infortunatum: Disentangling Effects of Larceny and Herbivorynvironmental Entomology, 47(5),2018, 1143–1151 doi: 10.1093/ee/nvy090Download
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Nectar larcenists extract nectar from flowers without pollinating them. A reasonable expectation is that any form of nectar larceny should have a detrimental effect on the plant’s reproductive success. However, studies reveal an entire range of effects, from highly negative to highly positive. This variation in effect may be partly explained by additional, unmeasured, effects of nectar larcenists on plants. In a study system where two ant species Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Trichomyrmex destructor (Jerd.) (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) act as nectar larcenists, we examined the effect of larceny on the female reproductive success of Clerodendrum infortunatum Gaertn. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) in rain forest fragments of the Western Ghats, India. This was done through a combination of field observations and a series of field experiments looking at the effects of excluding ants from inflorescences. We found that T. destructor reduces fruit set considerably. Rather than this being a consequence of nectar larceny, however, our experiments show that the negative effect arises instead from the herbivorous behavior of the ant. At a population level, both ant species prefer edges over interiors of forest patches, spatially concentrating the interaction zone to forest edges. Simultaneously considering multiple ecologicalinteractions and disentangling their relative contributions might explain the large variation across species in the observed effect of larceny. The overall population effect of nectar larceny and herbivory is likely to depend on the spatial structuring of plants and ants.
- Book Chapter2018Case study. Sarus Cranes and Indian farmers: an ancient coexistenceEditors: Jane E Austin and Kerryn Morrisson; pp. 206-210. https://www.savingcranes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/cranes_and_agriculture_web_2018.pdf; published by International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, Wisconsin, USADownload
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Sarus Cranes (Grus antigone) in India have benefited from long-standing cultural and traditional values of farmers. Substantial breeding populations persist even on landscapes entirely converted to human-dominated croplands. Four distinct population-level behaviors are recognized. Prominent growing conservation challenges for Sarus Cranes are highlighted. These include localized threats like egg mortality and land use change, and broader threats like pesticide-related mortality, industrialization, land use change, and changing climate. Challenges to Sarus Crane conservation are enormous, but persisting traditional agriculture and positive farmer attitudes offer considerable advantages. Framing and developing initiatives around these advantages will be critical to executing efficient and long-term conservation interventions.
- Book Chapter2018Public Participation in Understanding BiodiversityPp 160-165 in Karnataka State Biodiversity Board, Souvenir 2003-2018
- Popular Article2018I am a Scientist - InterviewiWonder Issue 5, Nov 2018
Featured in the magazine iWonder, a science magazine for (middle and high) school teachers.
- Popular Article2018Iyarkai Pathukappu sarntha padipugal (Academic Coursers related to Nature Conservation in India)The Hindu Tamil Year Book 2019. KLS Media Ltd. Chennai – 2. Pp. 287-297.
Jeganathan, P. (2018). Iyarkai Pathukappu sarntha padipugal (Coursers related to Nature Conservation in India).
See locations of the institutions mentioned in this map here
- Popular Article2018The case of the confusing Kanikonna treeThe Hindu, 26 June
- Journal Article2017Commensal in conflict: Livestock depredation patterns by free-ranging domestic dogs in the Upper Spiti Landscape, Himachal Pradesh, IndiaAmbio: doi:10.1007/s13280-016-0858-6Download
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In human-populated landscapes worldwide, domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are the most abundant terrestrial carnivore. Although dogs have been used for the protection of livestock from wild carnivores, they have also been implicated as predators of livestock. We used a combination of methods (field surveys, interview surveys, and data from secondary sources) to examine the patterns and factors driving livestock depredation by free-ranging dogs, as well as economic losses to local communities in a Trans-Himalayan agro-pastoralist landscape in India. Our results show that livestock abundance was a better predictor of depredation in the villages than local dog abundance. Dogs mainly killed small-bodied livestock and sheep were the most selected prey. Dogs were responsible for the majority of livestock losses, with losses being comparable to that by snow leopards. This high level of conflict may disrupt community benefits from conservation programs and potentially undermine the conservation efforts in the region through a range of cascading effects.
- Journal Article2017Alternative reproductive tactics and inverse size-assortment in a high-density fish spawning aggregationBMC Ecology, 17:10, DOI 10.1186/s12898-017-0120-5Download
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Mating successfully at high densities often requires species to employ unusual reproductive tactics. We report unique courtship behaviours in an un shed, high-density spawning aggregation of squaretail groupers (Plectropomus areolatus) that are potentially associated with alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). Aggregating males are typically known to court females in small territories (pair courtship), which is often associated with a pair-spawning tactic. However, we also observed the largest males simultaneously courting several females in mid-water shoals – a unique, high-cost-high-benefit courtship tactic which appears to result in a novel school-spawning tactic. Counter-intuitively we observed an inverse size- assortment in individuals–large males courted smaller females and vice-a-versa, likely linked to different pay- offs with competitive ability and local mate density. These unique, high-density behaviours are threatened to be lost, with increasing commercial fishing pressures on the P. areolatus aggregation.
- Popular Article2017Life of PineThe Hindu in School, 8 March
- Journal Article2017From intent to action: A case study for the expansion of tiger conservation from southern IndiaGlobal Ecology and Conservation, 9: 11–20Download
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To conserve a large, wide-ranging carnivore like the tiger, it is critical not only to maintain populations at key habitat sites, but also to enable the persistence of the species across much larger landscapes. To do this, it is important to establish well-linked habitat networks where sites for survival and reproduction of tigers are complemented by opportunities for dispersal and colonization. On the ground, expanding protection to areas with a potential for tiger recovery still remains the means of operationalizing the landscape approach. Yet, while the gazetting of protected areas is necessary to enable this, it is not sufficient. It is essential to benchmark and monitor the process by which establishment of protected areas must necessarily be followed by management changes that enable a recovery of tigers, their prey and their habitats. In this paper, we report a case study from the Cauvery and Malai Mahadeshwara Hills Wildlife Sanctuaries of southern India, where we document the infrastructural and institutional changes that ensued after an unprecedented expansion of protected areas in this landscape. Further, we establish ecological benchmarks of the abundance and distribution of tigers, the relative abundance of their prey, and the status of their habitats, against which the recovery of tigers in this area of vast conservation potential may be assessed over time.
- Popular Article2017Defenders of the moundThe Hindu in School, 22 March
- Report2017Hornbill Watch Report June 2014 to February 2017June 2017, www.hornbills.in
- Journal Article2017Coping with catastrophe: foraging plasticity enables a benthic predator to survive in rapidly degrading coral reefsAnimal Behaviour, Vol 131: 13-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.010Download
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Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) disproportionately affects species with specialist traits and long generation times. By circumventing prolonged evolutionary processes, behavioural plasticity is critical in allowing species to cope with rapid environmental changes within their lifetimes. Coral reefs have faced multiple mass mortality events of corals related to climate change in the last two decades. The consequent loss of structural complexity adversely impacts long-lived, structure-dependent fish predators. We attempted to determine how well a guild of groupers (Pisces: Epinephelidae) copes with rapid structural change in the lightly fished Lakshadweep Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Of the 15 species, territorial and site-attached groupers declined exponentially with decreasing structural complexity, while widely ranging species showed no change. However, one site-attached species, the peacock grouper, Cephalopholis argus, maintained high densities across the structural gradient. We explored the mechanisms this species employs to cope with declining habitat structure. Our observations indicate that both a potential release from specialist competitors and plasticity in foraging behaviour (foraging territory size, diet and foraging mode) appeared to favour the peacock grouper's survival in sites of high and low structure. While specialist competitors dropped out of the assemblage, the foraging territory size of peacock groupers increased exponentially with structural decline, but remained constant and compact (50 m2) above a threshold of structural complexity (corresponding to a canopy height of 60 cm). Interestingly, despite significant differences in prey density in sites of high and low structure, gut content and stable isotope analyses indicated that peacock groupers maintained a specialized dietary niche. In-water behavioural observations suggested that diet specialization was maintained by switching foraging modes from a structure-dependent ‘ambush’ to a structure-independent ‘widely foraging’ mode. The remarkable foraging plasticity of species such as the peacock grouper will become increasingly critical in separating winners from losers and may help preserve specialist ecosystem functions as habitats collapse as a result of climate change.
- Book2017Birds of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands: A pocket guide to 139 birds of the islands
- Book2017Birds of Karnataka (Kannada) - pocket guide
- Journal Article2017Snow Leopard, Ecology and Conservation Issues in IndiaResonance, Indian Academy of Sciences, DOI 10.1007/s12045-017-0511-0Download
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Snow leopard, an elusive mammal species of the cat family, is the top-predator of the Central and South Asian, highaltitude ecosystem. Snow leopards occur at low densities across the Central Asian mountains and the Indian Himalayan region. Owing to their secretive nature and inaccessible habitat, little is known about its ecology and distribution. Due to its endangered status and high aesthetic value, the snow leopard is considered as an ‘umbrella species’ for wildlife conservation in the Indian Himalayas. This article summarizes the current knowledge on snow leopard ecology and conservation issues in the Indian context.
- Dataset2017Data from: Plant-disperser mutualisms in a semi-arid habitat invaded by Lantana camara L. Plant EcologyData Dryad. http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.gc6dm
- Dataset2017Playing it safe? behavioural responses of mosquito larvae encountering a fish predator. Ethology Ecology & EvolutionData Dryad. http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.mc132
- Journal Article2017Plant-disperser mutualisms in a semi-arid habitat invaded by Lantana camara L.Plant Ecology 218 (8): 935-946Download
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Dispersal is an important ecological process that affects plant population structure and community composition. Invasive plants with fleshy fruits rapidly form associations with native and invasive dispersers, and may affect existing native plant-disperser associations. We asked whether frugivore visitation rate and fruit removal was associated with plant characteristics in a community of fleshy-fruited plants and whether an invasive plant receives more visitation and greater fruit removal than native plants in a semi-arid habitat of Andhra Pradesh, India. Tree-watches were undertaken at individuals of nine native and one invasive shrub species to assess the identity, number and fruit removal by avian frugivores. Network analyses and generalised linear mixed-effects models were used to understand species and community-level patterns. All plants received most number of visits from abundant, generalist avian frugivores. Number of frugivore visits and time spent by frugivores at individual plants was positively associated with fruit crop size, while fruit removal was positively associated with number of frugivore visits and their mean foraging time at individual plants. The invasive shrub, Lantana camara L. (Lantana), had lower average frugivore visit rate than the community of fleshy-fruited plants and received similar average frugivore visits but greater average per-hour fruit removal than two other concurrently fruiting native species. Based on the results of our study, we infer that there is little evidence of competition between native plants and Lantana for the dispersal services of native frugivores and that more data are required to assess the nature of these interactions over the long term. We speculate that plant associations with generalist frugivores may increase the functional redundancy of this frugivory network, buffering it against loss of participating species.