- Journal Article2006Effects of habitat structure and adjacent habitats on birds in tropical rainforest fragments and shaded plantations in the Western Ghats.Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 1577-1607.Download
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As large nature reserves occupy only a fraction of the earth’s land surface, conservation biologists are critically examining the role of private lands, habitat fragments, and plantations for conservation. This study in a biodiversity hotspot and endemic bird area, the Western Ghats mountains of India, examined the effects of habitat structure, floristics, and adjacent habitats on bird communities in shade-coffee and cardamom plantations and tropical rainforest fragments. Habitat and birds were sampled in 13 sites: six fragments (three relatively isolated and three with canopy connectivity with adjoining shade-coffee plantations and forests), six plantations differing in canopy tree species composition (five coffee and one cardamom), and one undisturbed primary rainforest control site in the Anamalai hills. Around 3300 detections of 6000 individual birds belonging to 106 species were obtained. The coffee plantations were poorer than rainforest in rainforest bird species, particularly endemic species, but the rustic cardamom plantation with diverse, native rainforest shade trees, had bird species richness and abundance comparable to primary rainforest. Plantations and fragments that adjoined habitats providing greater tree canopy connectivity supported more rainforest and fewer open-forest bird species and individuals than sites that lacked such connectivity. These effects were mediated by strong positive effects of vegetation structure, particularly woody plant variables, cane, and bamboo, on bird community structure. Bird community composition was however positively correlated only to floristic (tree species) composition of sites. The maintenance or restoration of habitat structure and (shade) tree species composition in shade-coffee and cardamom plantations and rainforest fragments can aid in rainforest bird conservation in the regional landscape.
- Popular Article2006Making headway: Lisus, Namdapha officials 'talk' in Arunachal.Down to Earth. April 15. pp. 44.
- Journal Article2006Local processes strongly influence post-bleaching benthic recovery in the Lakshadweep IslandsCoral Reefs. 25: 427-440
The atoll reefs of the Lakshadweep, in the Indian Ocean suffered a catastrophic mortality of hard coral in the wake of the El Niño event of 1998. This study tracked changes to coral and other benthic elements in three atolls in the Lakshadweep from 2000 to 2003. The recovery of coral was highly site-specific, and appeared to be driven by differences in post-settlement survival of coral recruits, that were in turn, influenced by the local hydrodynamics of the atolls. Post bleaching recovery was highest on west-facing reefs, while recovery on east-facing reefs was very limited. However, no ‘phase-shift’ to macroalgal dominated reefs was evident. High herbivore pressures were perhaps the most important control of macroalgae. Five years after the mass mortality, the genera that showed the maximum gains represented a mix of different susceptibilities to bleaching, while some genera that were not particularly susceptible to bleaching showed significant declines. These results suggest that decline or recovery of coral is likely dependent on individual life history strategies, post-recruitment survival, and contingency.
- Journal Article2006Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia).Journal of Zoology (London), 268, 217-224.
- Poster2006Tiger (Anamalais , Western Ghats)Download
PDF, 4.89 MB
Denizen, Sambar, Gaur, Chital, Archetypal, Tamil
- Book Review2006Of personality, ideology and science in tiger conservation (Review of A View from the Machan by K. Ullas Karanth)Conservation and Society 4: 350-353
- Poster2006Squirrels (Anamalais , Western Ghats)Download
PDF, 5.09 MB
Anamalai Hills, Indian Giant Squirrel, Travancore Flying Squirrel, Indian Giant Flying Squirrel, Jungle Striped Squirrel, Dusky Striped Squirrel, Grizzled Giant Squirrel,Tamil
- Journal Article2006Mammals of the high altitudes of Western Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs.Oryx 40(1): 1-7.
The high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unpro- tected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12 carnivores, 10 ungulates and 5 primates) were recorded, of which 13 are categorized as Endangered or Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. One species of primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, is new to science and the Chinese goral Nemorhaedus caudatus is a new addition to the ungulate fauna of the Indian subconti- nent. We documented peoples’ dependence on natural resources for grazing and extraction of timber and medicinal plants. The region’s mammals are threatened by widespread hunting. The snow leopard Uncia uncia and dhole Cuon alpinus are also persecuted in retaliation for livestock depredation. The tiger Panthera tigris, earlier reported from the lower valleys, is now apparently extinct there, and range reductions over the last two decades are reported for bharal Pseudois nayaur and musk deer Moschus sp.. Based on mammal species richness, extent of high altitude habitat, and levels of anthropo- genic disturbance, we identified a potential site for the creation of Arunachal’s first high altitude wildlife reserve (815 km2). Community-based efforts that provide incentives for conservation-friendly practices could work in this area, and conservation awareness programmes are required, not just amongst the local communities and schools but for politicians, bureaucrats and the army.
- Poster2006Primates of Namdaphasupported by Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund Wildlife Conservation Society The Ford FoundationDownload
JPG, 454 KB
Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Hoolock Gibbon, Rhesus Macaque, Pig- tailed Macaque, Leaf-eating Capped Langur, Slow Loris, Assamese Macaque, Stump-tailed Macaque
- Poster2006Large Herbivores of Namdaphasupported by Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund, Wildlife Conservation Society and The Ford FoundationDownload
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Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Leaf Muntjac, Black Muntjac, Hog Deer, Musk Deer, Takin, Serow, Red Goral, Barking Deer, Gaur, Wild Pig, Elephant, Sambar
- Book2005Let’s discover our hornbills. Colouring and activity book on Indian hornbills. Hornbill Conservation Program.A Nature Conservation Foundation Publication. 42 pp.Download
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A colouring and activity book for children on Indian hornbills. This book tells you about the nine different hornbill species found in India, how they look, where they live, what they eat and much more!
- Book Chapter2005Eight years monitoring of Malabar grey hornbill Ocyceros griseus nest cavity use and dynamics in the Anamalai rainforest, India.The ecology of hornbills: reproduction and population (eds S. Lum & P. Poonswad), pp. 3-10. Pimdee Karnpim Co., Ltd., Bangkok.
- Journal Article2005Macaca munzala: A New Species from Western Arunachal Pradesh, Northeastern IndiaInternational Journal of Primatology 26(4): xxx-xxxDownload
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Macaca, comprising 20 well-characterized species, represents the largest and one of the most ecologically and socially diverse of all the nonhuman primate genera. We report the discovery of a macaque that is new to science from the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, a biodiversity-rich state in northeastern India. We propose the scientific name Macaca munzala and the vernacular name Arunachal macaque for the species. It shares morphological characteristics independently with the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) and with the Tibetan macaque M. thibetana; like them, it appears to belong to the sinica species-group of the genus. However, the species is distinctive in relative tail length, which is intermediate between those of Tibetan and Western Assamese macaques, the subspecies with which it is sympatric. It is also unique in its altitudinal distribution, occurring largely at altitudes between 2000 and 3500 m. We provide a morphological characterization of the species, report preliminary data on its field biology and discuss possible taxonomic identity in relation to the other closely-related species of Macaca.
- Journal Article2005The Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala: a new primate species from western Arunachal Pradesh, north-eastern IndiaInternational Journal of Primatology 26 (4): 977-989.
- Popular Article2005Fading fauna, forgotten people.Down to Earth. Sept 15.
- Popular Article2005High on hornbills.Wildlife Conservation magazine. June 2005.
- Journal Article2005Benthic recovery four years after an El Niño-induced coral mass mortality in the Lakshadweep atollsCurrent Science. 89(4): 694-699Download
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The reefs of the Lakshadweep suffered a mass mortality of coral in 1998, in the wake of an El Niño event of unprecedented severity. In 2002, we conducted a broadscale benthic survey of six atolls in this group to check if there were geographic trends in recovery patterns across the archipelago. Four years after the mass mortality, live coral cover was relatively low on most atolls, and thin algal turfs dominated the benthos. Clear benthic differences were apparent between eastern and western aspects of reefs, pointing to the importance of local hydrodynamic conditions in determining recovery rates. Where recovery was the most apparent, it was dominated by fast-growing and bleaching-resistant coral genera. Despite the apparent lack of recovery at many sites, the reef system did not show signs of having suffered a ‘phase shift’ to a macroalgal state. High herbivorous fish abundance was likely responsible in controlling macrophyte levels, and may be crucial for further benthic recovery in these reefs.
- Journal Article2005Ecology proposes, behaviour disposes: Ecological variability in social organization and male behavioural strategies among wild bonnet macaquesCurrent Science, 89: 1166-1179Download
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The structure and evolution of primate societies are generally shaped by ecological and social forces of natural selection. The habitat and feeding ecology of primate populations, in particular, largely determine the size of the existing social groups and the pattern of interactions between individuals within and across such groups. The bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata), an Old World monkey endemic to peninsular India, usually lives in seasonal tropical deciduous forests and occurs in typically large multimale multifemale associations. This species, however, appears to have evolved, in re- cent years, a fairly high proportion of small, but rea- sonably stable, unimale troops within one particular population in the Bandipur–Mudumalai wildlife sanc- tuaries of southern India. Demographic analyses indi- cate that, as compared to multimale troops, unimale groups are relatively depleted in subadult and juvenile males, exhibit a unique female-biased birth sex ratio and display extensive female dispersal, all of which may have arisen in response to reproductive monopo- lization by the solitary resident male. Several ecological factors, including food provisioning, may have led to the evolution of this social organization, unique for a seasonally breeding cercopithecine primate. Provisioning of primate groups also leads to a significant increase in intra-troop competition among individuals for the newly available resources. Do such individuals, however, exhibit altered behavioural strategies to alleviate social tension? Changing patterns of social interactions between adult males were also analysed for one particular troop of bonnet macaques in the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary under two ecological situations – as they foraged on their natural diet and when they gathered provisioned food from tourists visiting the sanctuary. Although feeding competition increased markedly as these individuals alternated between natural foraging and competing for provisioned food, individual macaques were able to adopt appropriate social strategies under such rapidly changing eco- logical regimes. These studies demonstrate the behavioural and social plasticity of a primate species and the value of demographic studies of multiple groups and populations in different ecological environments.
- Popular Article2005Shot down by friendly fireIndian Express 3 July 2005
- Popular Article2005Shot down by friendly fireDown To Earth 30 June 2005