- Poster2006Crocodile and Monitor Lizard (Anamalais , Western Ghats)Download
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Muggers, Freshwater, Monitors, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Tamil
- Poster2006Tiger (Anamalais , Western Ghats)Download
PDF, 4.89 MB
Denizen, Sambar, Gaur, Chital, Archetypal, Tamil
- Report2006Hanging by a thread: Spider communities in rainforest fragments and shade-coffee plantations in the Anamalai hills, Western Ghats, India.NCF Technical Report No. 13. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.
- Journal Article2006An assessment of spider sampling methods in tropical rainforest fragments of the Anamalai hills, Western Ghats, India.Zoos' Print Journal 21: 2483-2488.
- Poster2006Large Herbivores of Namdaphasupported by Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund, Wildlife Conservation Society and The Ford FoundationDownload
JPG, 500 KB
Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Leaf Muntjac, Black Muntjac, Hog Deer, Musk Deer, Takin, Serow, Red Goral, Barking Deer, Gaur, Wild Pig, Elephant, Sambar
- Poster2006Carnivores of Namdaphasupported by Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund, Wildlife Conservation Society The Ford FoundationDownload
JPG, 482 KB
Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Tiger, Leopard, Clouded Leopard, Black Bear, Marbled Cat, Leopard Cat, Malayan Sun Bear, Wild Dog, Golden Cat
- Poster2006Lesser-known Mammals of Namdaphasupported by Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund Wildlife Conservation Society The Ford FoundationDownload
JPG, 481 KB
Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Red Panda, Chinese Pangolin, Giant Flying Squirrel, Himalayan Crestless Porcupine, Brush-Tailed Porcupine, Malayan Giant Squirrel, Hoary-Bellied Squirrel, Orange-Bellied Squirrel
- Report2006India’s Tentative List of Natural Heritage Properties to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.Submitted to World Heritage Centre, UNESCO, Paris.Download
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The Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India embarked on the process of preparation of its tentative list of natural heritage properties on the world heritage list in 2002 and has identified 7 sub-clusters containing 39 site elements for serial nomination from the Western Ghats in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. In addition to this, 3 single sites in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Gujarat have also been identified for inclusion in the tentative list. The tentative list has been prepared through a participative process with active partnership between government, scientific institution (Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun) and civil society organizations (Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and Environment, Bangalore and Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore)
- Journal Article2006Effects of habitat structure and adjacent habitats on birds in tropical rainforest fragments and shaded plantations in the Western Ghats.Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 1577-1607.Download
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As large nature reserves occupy only a fraction of the earth’s land surface, conservation biologists are critically examining the role of private lands, habitat fragments, and plantations for conservation. This study in a biodiversity hotspot and endemic bird area, the Western Ghats mountains of India, examined the effects of habitat structure, floristics, and adjacent habitats on bird communities in shade-coffee and cardamom plantations and tropical rainforest fragments. Habitat and birds were sampled in 13 sites: six fragments (three relatively isolated and three with canopy connectivity with adjoining shade-coffee plantations and forests), six plantations differing in canopy tree species composition (five coffee and one cardamom), and one undisturbed primary rainforest control site in the Anamalai hills. Around 3300 detections of 6000 individual birds belonging to 106 species were obtained. The coffee plantations were poorer than rainforest in rainforest bird species, particularly endemic species, but the rustic cardamom plantation with diverse, native rainforest shade trees, had bird species richness and abundance comparable to primary rainforest. Plantations and fragments that adjoined habitats providing greater tree canopy connectivity supported more rainforest and fewer open-forest bird species and individuals than sites that lacked such connectivity. These effects were mediated by strong positive effects of vegetation structure, particularly woody plant variables, cane, and bamboo, on bird community structure. Bird community composition was however positively correlated only to floristic (tree species) composition of sites. The maintenance or restoration of habitat structure and (shade) tree species composition in shade-coffee and cardamom plantations and rainforest fragments can aid in rainforest bird conservation in the regional landscape.
- Journal Article2006Distribution and Conservation Status of the Arunachal Macaque, Macaca munzala, in Western Arunachal Pradesh, Northeastern IndiaPrimate Conservation Vol 21: 145–148Download
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The recently described Arunachal macaque, Macaca munzala, has to date been reported only from western Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya. Our surveys have recorded a total of 35 troops and 569 individuals, probably a conservative estimate, for the macaque population in the Tawang and West Kameng districts of the state. The species appears to be tolerant to anthropo- genic habitat change, but is vulnerable to hunting and retaliatory killing in response to crop damage. Data from one part of the area surveyed, however, indicate that the species can attain remarkably high population densities in the absence of hunting. Macaca munzala will need to be protected in human-modified landscapes, and the issues of crop damage and retaliatory persecution must be addressed urgently.
- Journal Article2005The global village: linkages between international coffee markets and grazing by livestock in a south Indian wildlife reserveConservation Biology 19: 411-420Download
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India’s heritage of natural habitats and wild species is under growing threat from its biomass- dependent rural peoples and its consumeristic urban economy. As the mainstay of its wildlife conserva- tion effort, then, India’s wildlife reserves continue to face a range of extractive uses. The Indian conserva- tion/development discourse has, however, drawn a distinction between traditional subsistence use and modern commercial use of natural resources in wildlife reserves. It has also been suggested that subsistence use must be accommodated within Indian wildlife reserves because it caters exclusively to local consumption for livelihood, whereas commercial use warrants greater restriction because it furthers profit-based goals of distant interests. How valid is such a clear distinction between subsistence use and commercial use? I address this question using the village of Hangala on the boundary of Bandipur National Park in south India as a case study. Hangala’s livestock were reared primarily for their inputs of dung and draft power into local agriculture, and customarily grazed in the forests of Bandipur. This practice qualified as subsistence use because all goods and services obtained from livestock grazing in Bandipur catered exclusively to village-level consumption. In the last two decades, major upheavals in the global coffee markets dramatically boosted profit margins of coffee growers in the hill districts abutting Bandipur. The profits enabled coffee growers to afford expansions of their resource catchment for dung, an important farm manure in short supply in the coffee districts. When this demand reached Hangala, it resulted in large-scale export of dung, which transformed it from locally produced and locally consumed manure for village agriculture to a high-value organic fertilizer for commercial export to coffee plantations. Following the dung export, livestock numbers in the region increased, aggravating graz- ing pressures on the forests. This case study thus challenges politically correct notions that subsistence use is distinguishable from and preferable to commercial use in the context of protected-area management in India.
- Popular Article2005Shot down by friendly fireDown To Earth 30 June 2005
- Journal Article2005Ecology proposes, behaviour disposes: Ecological variability in social organization and male behavioural strategies among wild bonnet macaquesCurrent Science, 89: 1166-1179Download
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The structure and evolution of primate societies are generally shaped by ecological and social forces of natural selection. The habitat and feeding ecology of primate populations, in particular, largely determine the size of the existing social groups and the pattern of interactions between individuals within and across such groups. The bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata), an Old World monkey endemic to peninsular India, usually lives in seasonal tropical deciduous forests and occurs in typically large multimale multifemale associations. This species, however, appears to have evolved, in re- cent years, a fairly high proportion of small, but rea- sonably stable, unimale troops within one particular population in the Bandipur–Mudumalai wildlife sanc- tuaries of southern India. Demographic analyses indi- cate that, as compared to multimale troops, unimale groups are relatively depleted in subadult and juvenile males, exhibit a unique female-biased birth sex ratio and display extensive female dispersal, all of which may have arisen in response to reproductive monopo- lization by the solitary resident male. Several ecological factors, including food provisioning, may have led to the evolution of this social organization, unique for a seasonally breeding cercopithecine primate. Provisioning of primate groups also leads to a significant increase in intra-troop competition among individuals for the newly available resources. Do such individuals, however, exhibit altered behavioural strategies to alleviate social tension? Changing patterns of social interactions between adult males were also analysed for one particular troop of bonnet macaques in the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary under two ecological situations – as they foraged on their natural diet and when they gathered provisioned food from tourists visiting the sanctuary. Although feeding competition increased markedly as these individuals alternated between natural foraging and competing for provisioned food, individual macaques were able to adopt appropriate social strategies under such rapidly changing eco- logical regimes. These studies demonstrate the behavioural and social plasticity of a primate species and the value of demographic studies of multiple groups and populations in different ecological environments.
- Popular Article2005Shot down by friendly fireIndian Express 3 July 2005
- Book Chapter2005Eight years monitoring of Malabar grey hornbill Ocyceros griseus nest cavity use and dynamics in the Anamalai rainforest, India.The ecology of hornbills: reproduction and population (eds S. Lum & P. Poonswad), pp. 3-10. Pimdee Karnpim Co., Ltd., Bangkok.
- Journal Article2005Record of the Chinese goral Nemorhaedus caudatus in Arunachal PradeshJournal of the Bombay Natural History Society 102: 225-227
- Journal Article2005The Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala: a new primate species from western Arunachal Pradesh, north-eastern IndiaInternational Journal of Primatology 26 (4): 977-989.
- Popular Article2005High on hornbills.Wildlife Conservation magazine. June 2005.
- Journal Article2005Of rights and wrongs: wildlife conservation and the tribal billEconomic and Political Weekly 40: 4893-4895Download
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While the Wildlife Act was always meant to recognise and settle the rights of forest dwellers, in practice, it has been used largely as a blunt instrument to bludgeon them with. It is entirely possible that the Tribal Bill could tomorrow become a similar blunt instrument with which to bludgeon wildlife.
- Popular Article2005Fading fauna, forgotten people.Down to Earth. Sept 15.