- Journal Article2018Context-dependent interactive effects of non-lethal predation on larvae impact adult longevity and body compositionPLoS ONE. 13(2): e0192104
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Predation impacts development, behavior and morphology of prey species thereby shaping their abundances, distribution and community structure. Non-lethal threat of predation, specifically, can have a strong influence on prey lifehistory characteristics. While investigations often focus on the impact of predation threat on prey in isolation, tests of its interactive effects with food availability and resource competition on prey survival and fitness can improve understanding of costs, benefits and trade-offs of anti-predator strategies. This study, involving Aedes aegypti mosquitoes as a model organism, investigates both simple and interactive effects of predation threat during the larval stage on survival, size at and time to maturity, stored teneral reserves of glycogen, protein and lipid in adults, and adult longevity. Our results show that development times of mosquito larvae were increased (by 14.84% in males and by 97.63% in females), and size of eclosing adults decreased (by 62.30% in males and by 58.33% in females) when exposed to lowered nutrition and elevated intraspecific competition, but that predation had no detectable effect on these simple traits. Teneral reserves of glycogen, protein and lipid and adult longevity were positively correlated with adult body size. Non-lethal predation threat had significant interactive effects with nutrition and larval competition on teneral reserves in males and adult longevity in males and females. The sexes responded differently to conditions encountered as larvae, with the larval environment affecting development and adult characteristics more acutely for females than for males. The outcome of this study shows how threat of predation on juveniles can have long-lasting effects on adults that are likely to impact mosquito population dynamics and that may impact disease transmission.
- Journal Article2018Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris in Anini, Arunachal PradeshIndian Birds 14(3): 90
- Popular Article2018When shepherds must kill their lambsSanctuary Asia, August issue, Pages 71-72
- Journal Article2018Whose habitat is it anyway? Role of natural and anthropogenic habitats in conservation of charismatic speciesTropical Conservation Science 11: 1-5.Download
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Developmental activities have been one of the major drivers of conversion of natural forest areas into mosaics of forest fragments, agriculture, and plantations, threatening the existence of wildlife species in such altered landscapes. Most conservation research and actions are protected area centric and seldom addresses the importance of landscape matrices around these protected areas in providing habitats to a wide range of species. In this article, we bring out the crucial role of natural and anthropogenic habitats for the existence of three charismatic species, namely, Asian elephants, leopard, and lion-tailed macaques. The larger public perception of where the animals should be and where the animals actually are is also discussed. We emphasize that, while habitat generalists often adapt behaviorally and ecologically to modified landscapes, habitat specialists, such as the lion-tailed macaques could find survival harder, with increasing anthropogenic pressures and loss of their habitats.
- Conference Proceedings2018Snow leopard and prey: Landscape-level distribution modeling & impacts of migratory livestock grazing in Symposium Assimilated Knowledges: an integrated approach to conservation in snow leopard landscapesConservation Asia, 2018, Society for Conservation Biology
- Book Chapter2018Large Carnivore and Conservation and Management
- Book2018Pillars of Life: Magnificent Trees of the Western GhatsNature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.
For millions of years, the forests of the Western Ghats mountains have been home to a host of extraordinary trees. These range from the peculiar conifer, Nageia, whose family origins can be traced back to the age of the dinosaurs, to the grand trees in the rudraksh family, to the jack and fig trees that occupy a familiar presence in India’s forests and countryside. This book showcases thirty remarkable tree species through beautiful illustrations and artwork. It conveys the wonder arising from the beauty, the diversity, the individuality, and magnificence of trees in the Western Ghats, and evokes a greater sensitivity to the diverse values and enrichment that trees bring to our lives.
Foreword by Pradip Krishen
Botanical Illustrations by Nirupa Rao
Sketches by Sartaj Ghuman
Available here: https://www.instamojo.com/NCF/pillars-of-life/
- Journal Article2018Local community neutralizes traditional wolf traps and builds a stupaOryx
- Book Chapter2018Chapter 6. Methods to reduce conflicts between cranes and farmersEditors: Jane E Austin and Kerryn Morrisson; pp. 117-141. https://www.savingcranes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/cranes_and_agriculture_web_2018.pdf; published by International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, Wisconsin, USADownload
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Alternative methods to reduce conflicts between cranes and farmers range from relatively simple, inexpensive disturbance methods to changes in land use at a landscape scale. Visual and acoustics disturbance methods can be useful for small fields or gardens but require frequent changes to prevent habituation by the cranes. Changes in farming practices can be implemented by individual farmers and matched to the local situation. By altering timing of seeding and harvest, harvest methods, and other management practices, farmers can minimize the vulnerability of the crop or its attractiveness to cranes. Crop damage can be reduced by strategically locating high-risk crops away from crane roosts or high-use areas. Diversionary fields, where cranes can forage on nutritious, preferred foods near their roost without disturbance, are one of the more effective methods to reduce crop damage. Artificial feeding may be appropriate as a temporary measure but its long-term use should only be a last option where no alternative wintering areas or food resources are available or restorable. Chemical treatment of seeds can deter cranes from taking newly sown seeds and seedlings. Conflicts with farmers can be mitigated by financial or other compensation, or through conservation approaches. Financial mechanisms should be used cautiously as they can dilute or corrupt local traditions of tolerance. An integrated approach, using several methods, is more likely to be effective in the long term. Farmers and communities are more likely to embrace alternative measures if they understand basic crane ecology and if the measures are clearly beneficial to the farmers. Developing a broader range of tools to better understand the conflict, to understand farmer perceptions of cranes, and to help implement strategies to improve positivist attitudes is necessary. Multi-disciplinary approaches that incorporate social, economic as well as ecological aspects of the issue are very rare, and much needed to develop workable solutions.
- Book Chapter2018Expanding nature conservation: considering wide landscapes and deep histories.Pages 249-267 in G. Cederlöf and M. Rangarajan (editors), 'At Nature's Edge: The Global Present and Long-Term History,' Oxford University Press, New Delhi. 331 pp.
- Book Chapter2018Narrative from Indian seas: Marine resource use, Ecosystem responses, and the accidents of history.Pages 229-248 in G. Cederlöf and M. Rangarajan (editors), 'At Nature's Edge: The Global Present and Long-Term History,' Oxford University Press, New Delhi. 331 pp.
- Report2018Hornbill Nest Adoption Program - 2018 Breeding SeasonHNAP 2018 Report
- Conference Proceedings2018IUCN-SSC Stork, Ibis and Spoonbill Specialist Group Special Publication 1. VII International Conference on Black Stork Ciconia nigra: programme and abstracts.Download
PDF, 1.11 MB
This booklet includes the programme and all of the abstracts of accepted talks and presentations for the VII International Conference on Black Storks.
- Journal Article2018Nesting success and nest-site selection of White-rumped Vultures (Gyps bengalensis) in western Maharashtra, IndiaJournal of Raptor Research 52 (4): 431-442Download
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A few breeding populations of White-rumped Vultures (Gyps bengalensis) still survive in pockets of their original vast range in India, having weathered a diclofenac-induced population decline of 99.9% since the early 1990s. These breeding populations are potential sources of recruits, now that the overall population appears to be stabilizing or even recovering in some areas. We studied two White-rumped Vulture nesting colonies in the Raigad district of coastal Maharashtra in 2013–2014, to investigate site- specific nesting success and nest-site selection. Our overall aim was to better understand the capability of these remnant populations to contribute to the stability of vulture populations at a landscape scale. We found that vultures preferred to nest in taller trees. Nest failure was high before hatching but declined thereafter. Overall nesting outcome was unrelated to the distance of the nest from areas of disturbance, but may have been influenced by characteristics of nest trees. The percentage of successful nests was higher in the smaller colony, suggesting that colony size may not be the only best criterion for targeting conservation efforts.
- Journal Article2018Physiological stress responses in wild Asian elephants Elephas maximus in a human-dominated landscape in the Western Ghats, southern IndiaGeneral and Comparative EndocrinologyDownload
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Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014. Physiological stress responses varied significantly among the tested elephant age- and sex categories but not across different types of social organisation. Adults generally showed higher FGM concentrations, even in the absence of stressors, than did any other age category. Males also appeared to have higher stress responses than did females. Although there was no significant variation in mean stress levels between elephants on the plateau in the absence of human interactions and those in adjacent, relatively undisturbed forest habitats, FGM concentrations increased significantly for adult and subadult individuals as well as for calves following drives, during which elephants were driven off aggressively by people. Our study emphasises the general importance of understanding individual variation in physiology and behaviour within a population of a seriously threatened mammalian species, the Asian elephant, and specifically highlights the need for long-term monitoring of the stress physiology and behavioural responses of individual elephants across both human-dominated and natural landscapes. Such studies would not only provide comprehensive insights into the adaptive biology of elephants in changing ecological regimes but also aid in the development of effective management and conservation strategies for endangered populations of the species.
- Popular Article2018Kolap Paravaigal கோலப் பறவைகள்The Hindu Tamil News Daily, Uyirmoochu Supplement. 27th January
Jeganathan, P. (2018). Kolap Paravaigal (On birds in Pongal Kolam (Rangoli) in Tamil Nadu). The Hindu Tamil News Daily, Uyirmoochu Supplement. 27th January 2018.Link here.
- Popular Article2018Paravai Thangigal பறவைத் தாங்கிகள்The Hindu Tamil News Daily, Uyirmoochu Supplement. 17th February 2018
Jeganathan, P. (2018). Paravai Thangigal (On natural and artificial bird perches). The Hindu Tamil News Daily, Uyirmoochu Supplement. 17th February 2018.Link here.
- Popular Article2018Nadiyai Nadi நாடியை நாடிThe Hindu Tamil News Daily, Uyirmoochu Supplement. 8th September 2018.
Jeganathan, P. (2018). Nadiyai Nadi (On watching Lesser Noddy in Tamil Nadu). The Hindu Tamil News Daily, Uyirmoochu Supplement. 8th September 2018.Link here.
- Book Review2018Not just a waste – Book Review of ‘The Poop book’SAEVUS Magazine. December 2018. Pp 24-25.
Jeganathan, P. (2018). Not just a waste – Book Review of ‘The Poop book’. SAEVUS Magazine. December 2018. Pp 24-25.
- Journal Article2018Herpetofaunal survey in rainforest remnants of the Western Ghats, IndiaThe Herpetological Bulletin 146: 8-17.Download
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We undertook amphibian and reptile surveys in six rainforest remnants of the Anamalai Hills in the Western Ghats, India. Over a two-month period, 36 species of herpetofauna were recorded from these remnants, including one species of caecilian, 19 frog species, 8 lizard species and 8 species of snake. Six species were either critically endangered or endangered. We also recorded one species of frog (Nyctibatrachus acanthodermis) outside of its type locality for the first time since its original description. The study demonstrated the presence of several threatened species of herpetofauna in these small forest remnants, the protection and restoration of which are important for the conservation of biodiversity in the Western Ghats.