- Popular Article2013Becoming one of themThe Hindu in School, 9 January
- Journal Article2013Spatial and temporal variation in hornbill densities in Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh, north-east IndiaTropical Conservation Science 6:734-748Download
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Asian hornbill populations are declining across their ranges because of hunting and deforestation. Five of the 32 Asian hornbill species occur in north-east India. However, vital information on their abundance from the region remains scanty. Understanding spatiotemporal variation in densities provides crucial information for formulating effective conservation strategies based on species-specific abundance patterns and population trends. We examined spatiotemporal variation in densities of four hornbill species in the Namdapha Tiger Reserve, a site identified as an important site for hornbill conservation in Asia. We collected data through variable-width line transect sampling (effort=842.1 km) in the non-breeding season from 2009-12 to estimate hornbill densities. We had 458 detections of four hornbill species. We have estimated White-throated Brown Hornbill densities (7.9 birds/km2) for the first time throughout its entire range. The mean Rufous-necked Hornbill densities (6.9 birds/km2) were higher than those reported elsewhere. Great (3.9 birds/km2) and Wreathed Hornbill (16.1 birds/km2) densities were comparable with other sites. The peak densities of all hornbill species in November-December are among the highest reported from Asia. Wreathed Hornbill densities showed temporal variation peaking in November-December (68 birds/km2) and drastically declining by March-April (1.3 birds/km2), indicating seasonal altitudinal movement to low elevation areas outside the reserve during the breeding season. Our results underscored the spatial variation in hornbill distribution, with low densities of Great and the White-throated Brown hornbills in higher elevations. Our study demonstrates the global importance of Namdapha for hornbills, given its large area and high densities of four hornbill species.
- Popular Article2013Living in an extreme worldThe Hindu, Editorial Page, 13 July 2013, page 10.
There is compelling evidence to show that man weather-related disasters are not chance occurrences but are a result of human activities that have altered our atmosphere.
- Journal Article2013Records of small carnivores from in and around Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh, India.Small Carnivore Conservation 49: 1-8.Download
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For most of Northeast India’s diverse assemblage of small carnivores, direct observations and ecological information are limited. Opportunistic direct observations and camera-trap records from 2008 to 2013 in eastern Arunachal Pradesh recorded 11 small carnivore species of the 20 likely to occur. Observations included the first confirmed Small-toothed Palm Civet Arctogalidia trivirgata sighting from India; dietary observations of five species and hunting of two species.
- Newsletter2013Where have all the dugongs gone? A study on long-term occupancy trends in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India,Sirenews, Newsletter of the IUCN Sirenia Specialist Group, Vol. 60.
- Popular Article2013Death in the hillsIndian Express, The Sunday Express Magazine
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) had made its way into the mountains from the plains of Pasighat in Arunachal Pradesh. The worst affected were the semi-domesticated mithun (Bos frontalis) that were dying out even as their owners watched helplessly. Each day, as one more animal was found dead in the forest or beside the road, another few were seen salivating profusely from the mouth as the infection spread rapidly.
- Journal Article2013Complex ecological pathways underlie perceptions of conflict between green turtles and fishers in the Lakshadweep Islands.Biological Conservation 167: 25-34
Managing human–wildlife conflict is often complicated by apparent mismatches between community perceptions and measures of directly incurred losses. Fishers in Agatti Island (Lakshadweep, India) associate recent increases in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) populations with declining fish catches, resulting in targeted killing of turtles. We compared fisher perceptions in Agatti with a very similar atoll, Kadmat, with much lower turtle densities. Nearly 90% of Agatti fishers interviewed blamed turtles for declining catch compared with 20% in Kadmat and proposed two mechanisms for this decline: direct interference (e.g., turtles damaged gear) which we define as first order conflict, and indirect mechanisms (second order conflict): turtles overgrazed seagrasses, thereby reducing fish catch. We evaluated the magnitude of gear loss with interviews and tested proposed indirect mechanisms with a turtle density gradient, before–after comparisons (taking advantage of an increase in turtles in Kadmat and concurrent decrease in Agatti) and a natural herbivore exclosure. These complementary approaches supported fisher-pro- posed second-order mechanisms: at high densities, turtles heavily grazed seagrasses, significantly reduced canopy heights, lowered fish recruit abundance, food fish biomass and catch. Estimates of losses incurred in Agatti show that first-order conflict cost fishers USD 0.6 fisher-1 year1, while second-order pathways accounted for USD 887 fisher-1 year-1. Our results show that local perceptions are fueled by often-complex mechanisms that, though not always straightforward to measure, are very important in generating conflict. Reconciling the human–wildlife interface requires an adequate accounting of direct and indirect mechanisms to more completely reflect true losses communities bear for living with wildlife.
- Popular Article2013Rasgullas worth their tinThe Hindu in School, 13 March
- Popular Article2013The circle of lifeThe Hindu in School, 17 April
- Journal Article2013Phenology, seed dispersal and regeneration patterns of Horsfieldia kingii, a rare wild nutmegTropical Conservation Science, 6 (5): 674-689.Download
PDF, 1.3 MB
We present observational data on the flowering and fruiting patterns, seed dispersal, seedling recruitment and survival of a dioecious Myristicaceae species, Horsfieldia kingii, that occurs in the tropical forests of Arunachal Pradesh. Horsfieldia is rare (1 tree ha1) with a scattered distribution; Horsfieldia trees did not flower every year, and flowering was staggered from April to July. Peak ripe fruit availability of Horsfieldia is from February to March. Failure of fruiting occurred in most years, and only 0-33% of sampled trees bore ripe fruits. Initiation of hornbill breeding coincides with the ripe fruit availability of this species. The percentage of hornbill nests in which nesting is initiated each year varies from 50 to 100% of nests, and our results show a significant positive relationship between the percentage of hornbill nests that are active in a given year and the contribution of the species to hornbill diet (n = 6 years). However, the overall contribution to the breeding season diet of hornbills is very low because of poor fruit availability in most years, resulting in limited seed dispersal at nests. Recruitment and survival of Horsfieldia seedlings below parent trees and hornbill nest trees were low; however, seedling survival was marginally higher at nest trees, suggesting that dispersal by hornbills even in a spatially contagious manner may be critical for this species. However, current recruitment of Horsfieldia at hornbill nests (2010) is significantly lower than at parent trees. This species appears to be seed-limited, while dispersal limitation may play a secondary role in determining its abundance.
- Popular Article2013Steamed, with salt and a dash of limeThe Hindu in School, 30 October
- Book Chapter2013Goral Nemorhaedus goralMammals of South Asia (eds A. J. T. Johnsingh & N.Manjrekar).Universities Press, Hyderabad.
- Report2013Hornbill Nest Adoption Program - 2013 Breeding seasonHNAP Report for 2013Download
PDF, 1.78 MB
2013 Report for Hornbill Nest Adoption Program
- Popular Article2013My books and their animalsThe Hindi in School, 23 January
- Popular Article2012A thousand leopards in the SeaThe Hindu in School, 29 September
- Book2012Fungus among us: An exploration of fungi in the Anamalai hills.Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore. 56 pages.
- Working Paper2012Beyond the borders: wildlife conservation in landscapes fragmented by plantations crops in IndiaNCF Working Paper 1, Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.Download
PDF, 384 KB
In regions of tropical forest, there is now global interest in bringing conservation efforts outside designated protected areas into the mainstream in landscapes with agricultural production and plantations such as of coffee, tea, rubber, and oil palm. Here, we describe the context and challenges of landscape-scale conservation amidst plantations and forests and other tropical ecosystems in India.
- Journal Article2012Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas.Nature 489: 290-294.
- Popular Article2012Hornbills: farmers of our forestsThe Hindu in School, 4 April
- Journal Article2012Trends in extinction and persistence of diurnal primates in Upper Brahmaputra ValleyOryx 46(2): 308-311Download
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The historical deforestation of the Upper Brahmaputra Valley in the Indian state of Assam has resulted in the transformation of its once-contiguous lowland rainforests into many isolated forest fragments that are still rich in species, including primates. We report the recent history and current status of six diurnal primates in one large (2,098 ha) and three small (, 500 ha) fragments of the Upper Brahmaputra Valley. We censused primates in the small fragments during 2002, 2005, 2009, in the large fragment in 2008, and used other published census data to derive population trends. We also used key informant surveys to obtain historical occurrence data for these populations. Our analyses reveal the recent extinction of some populations and the simultaneous long-term persist- ence of others in these fragments over 16 years. Most populations appeared to have declined in the small fragments but primate abundance has increased signific- antly in the largest fragment over the last decade. Addressing the biomass needs of the local human populations, which appears to drive habitat degradation, and better protection of these forests, will be crucial in ensuring the future survival of this diverse and unique primate assemblage in the last rainforest fragments of the human-dominated Upper Brahmaputra Valley.