JPG, 318 KB
Prey Animals, Gaur, Sambar, Cubs, Tiger, Poaching, Herbivore Prey
- Journal Article2014Spatio-temporal variation in forest cover and biomass across sacred groves in a human-modified landscape of India's Western GhatsBiological Conservation 178: 193-199.
Although the potential for community-conserved areas (CCAs) to extend conservation beyond formal protected areas is widely acknowledged, the scarcity of conservation assessments and monitoring hinders the rigorous evaluation of their effectiveness in many regions. In India, which hosts a high density and diversity of CCAs, the need for more assessments of the ecological and socio- economic properties of these systems to guide conservation planning and policy has been emphasized in recent years. We inventoried the extant sacred grove network against official records of 407 groves across 70 villages in the Kodagu District of India's Western Ghats, and interviewed local communities about their management and conservation. We also evaluated recent trends in aboveground biomass of sacred groves using time-series satellite data from six time-points during the 2000-2010 period, and made comparisons to corresponding trends in nearby State-managed protected forests. Although most of the larger (> 2ha) groves officially listed were forested at present, over two-thirds of the smaller groves listed were either not forested or could not be located. Local communities attributed these declines to encroachment and illicit logging. Time-series satellite data revealed aboveground biomass declines of ~0.5% annually across the sacred grove network over the 2000-2010 period. In contrast, biomass increased during this period at the interiors and edges of State-managed forests in the landscape. Our results highlight that the conservation status of even well-protected CCAs can vary considerably over time, especially given the dynamism in socio-economic, cultural and ecological factors that govern their status. We argue that understanding and addressing this dynamism is crucial to the conservation of CCAs.
- Report2014NCF Annual Report 2013 & 2014
- Popular Article2014சாப்பிடாமல்பறக்கும்வண்ணச்சித்திரங்கள். (On Moths)தி இந்து நாளிதழ். The Hindu Tamil News Daily.29th July 2014.
Jeganathan, P. (2014).சாப்பிடாமல்பறக்கும்வண்ணச்சித்திரங்கள் - திஇந்துநாளிதழ்உயிர்மூச்சுஇணைப்பில், ‘இயற்கையின்வாசலில்’தொடர்எண் – 4.29th July 2014. Saapidamal Parakkum Vanna Chithirangal– Iyarkayin Vaasalil ArticleSeries No.4 (On Moths). The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 29th July 2014.
- Book2014Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Consciousness and the SelfSpringer India, New Delhi
- Poster2014Asian ElephantsDownload
PDF, 7.67 MB
Dexterous, Pondorous, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands, Patriarch, Bamboo, Browse, Bark, Ivory, Tamil
- Popular Article2014தலை தெறிக்க ஓடிய சிறுத்தை! (On watching leopard in the forest)தி இந்து நாளிதழ். The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 26th August 2014.
Jeganathan, P. (2014). தலை தெறிக்க ஓடிய சிறுத்தை! -தி இந்து நாளிதழ் உயிர்மூச்சு இணைப்பில், ‘இயற்கையின்வாசலில்’தொடர்எண் – 8. 26th August 2014. Thalaitherikka Odiyathu Siruthai– Iyarkayin Vaasalil ArticleSeries No.8 (On watching leopard in the forest). The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 26th August 2014.
- Dataset2014Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves. Dryad Digital Repository.http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.6f8p0
- Poster2014Insects of the Western Ghats - Cricketssupported by Critical Ecosystem Partnership FundDownload
PDF, 25.7 MB
The Kudremukh Weta, Gryllacropsis, Crickets, Katydids, Tree Cricket, False Leaf Katydids, Onomarchus
- Poster2014Malabar Whistling ThrushDownload
PDF, 1.69 MB
The Whistling Schoolboy, Moist Forests, Plantations, Dark Plumage, Tamil
- Popular Article2014இலை வெட்டி மர்மம். (On Leafcutter Bee)தி இந்து நாளிதழ். The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 2nd September 2014.
Jeganathan, P. (2014). இலை வெட்டி மர்மம் -தி இந்து நாளிதழ் உயிர்மூச்சு இணைப்பில், ‘இயற்கையின் வாசலில்’ தொடர்எண் – 9. 2nd September 2014. Ilaivetti Marmam– Iyarkayin Vaasalil ArticleSeries No.9 (On Leafcutter Bee). The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 2nd September 2014.
- Poster2014Plant-Animal InteractionsDownload
PDF, 2.99 MB
Butterflies, Bats, Pollination, Hornbills, Macaques, Fruit Bats, Civets, Kernel
- Book Chapter2014Nature and Culture in the wild: Biological foundations of behavioural traditions in non-human primatesPages 367-389 in R Narasimha and S Menon (editors) Nature and Culture Volume XIV, Part 1, Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture Centre for Studies in Civilizations, New DelhiDownload
PDF, 202 KB
A variety of mechanisms for socially facilitated learning allow animals to acquire information from the behaviour of others, and through their own modified behaviour such information can subsequently be transmitted between individuals within and across generations. Variation in such socially acquired and transmitted behaviours is unlikely to be under direct genetic control since individuals who are closely related genetically can have and pass on very different behaviours; this is also true for cultural traditions that such behaviours may have generated. Behavioural information transfer of this nature thus represents another form of inheritance that operates in many nonhuman species, including primates, in tandem with the more basic genetic system. Most behavioural traditions usually precede genetic adaptations but exert persistent directional selection for genetic variations congruent with the new patterns of behaviour since such traditions lead to the transmission of the same selective regime. Selection for the ability to learn a particular behaviour pattern more efficiently and rapidly may also lead to it becoming dependent on fewer learning trials or none at all – ultimately culminating in a partial or complete incorporation of the trait into the basic genetic inheritance system. This paper reviews principles of culture and its biological foundations, and examines the rôles that behavioural inheritance and socially transmitted cultural traditions play in the structure and dynamics of primate societies, with particular reference to data from long-term field studies on Japanese macaques and from bonnet macaques, a species endemic to peninsular India. Three principal consequences are considered: the appearance of individual behavioural traits leading to the establishment of social traditions, the rôle of stable behavioural traditions in facilitating cultural selection, and the influence of particular behavioural and life-history traits on gene-culture coevolution in nonhuman primates.
- Poster2014Fig TreesDownload
PDF, 4.51 MB
Banyan, Peepul, Fig Wasps, Bulbuls, Squirrels, Hornbills, Macaques, Tamil
- Popular Article2014களக்காடு தந்த பரிசுகள். (On sighting various life forms in Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve)தி இந்து நாளிதழ். The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 30th September 2014.
Jeganathan, P. (2014).களக்காடு தந்த பரிசுகள் - தி இந்து நாளிதழ் உயிர்மூச்சு இணைப்பில், ‘இயற்கையின் வாசலில்’ தொடர் எண் – 13. 30th September 2014. Kalakkadu Thantha Parisugal– Iyarkayin Vaasalil ArticleSeries No.13 (On sighting various life forms in Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve). The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 30th September 2014.
- Popular Article2014அண்டங்காக்கையின் ஆச்சரியத் தேடல். (On Jungle Crows searching and feeding on tadpoles)தி இந்து நாளிதழ். The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 9th September 2014.
Jeganathan, P. (2014). அண்டங்காக்கையின் ஆச்சரியத் தேடல் - தி இந்து நாளிதழ் உயிர்மூச்சு இணைப்பில், ‘இயற்கையின் வாசலில்’ தொடர்எண் – 10. 9th September 2014. Andangkakkaiyin Acharya Thedal– Iyarkayin Vaasalil ArticleSeries No.10 (On Jungle Crows searching and feeding on tadpoles). The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 9th September 2014.
- Popular Article2014நீங்களும் விஞ்ஞானிதான்! (On Citizen Science)தி இந்து நாளிதழ். The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 18th November 2014.
Jeganathan, P. (2014).நீங்களும் விஞ்ஞானிதான்! - தி இந்து நாளிதழ் உயிர்மூச்சு இணைப்பில், ‘இயற்கையின் வாசலில்’ தொடர் எண் – 20. 18th November 2014. Neengalum vingnanithan– Iyarkayin Vaasalil ArticleSeries No.20 (On Citizen Science). The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 18th November 2014.
- Book Chapter2014Experientially Acquired Knowledge of the Self in a Nonhuman PrimatePages 81-99 in Sangeetha Menon, Anindya Sinha and B V Sreekantan (editors) Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Consciousness and the Self, Springer, India
The pressures of developing and maintaining intricate social relationships may have led to the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities in many social nonhuman species, particularly primates. Knowledge of the dominance ranks and social relationships of other individuals, for example, is important in evaluating one’s position in the prevailing affiliative and dominance networks within a primate society and could be acquired through direct or perceived experience. Allogrooming supplants among female bonnet macaques usually involve the subordinate female of a grooming dyad retreating at the approach of a third female, dominant to both members of the dyad, although, in a few exceptional cases, the dominant member of the dyad could, instead, retreat. Retreat by the dominant individual was observed to be positively correlated to the social attractiveness of her subordinate companion, indicating that individual females successfully evaluate social relationships among other group females. Logistic regression analysis revealed the probability of retreat of the dominant female to be significantly influenced by her own dominance rank and those of the other two interacting females. Individual macaques thus possess egotistical knowledge of their own positions, relative to those of others, in the social hierarchy and appear to, therefore, abstract and mentally represent their own personal attributes as well as those of other members of the group. The experiential acquisition of such cognitive knowledge of the self raises important questions about the possible mechanisms underlying the nature of this mental representation and the general ability to categorise social information in non-verbalizing animal species such as macaques.
- Popular Article2014A Hydra-headed plantThe Hindu in School, 26 November
- Book2014Nature Without BordersOrient Blackswan
Nature Without Borders explores the ways in which conservation of biodiversity can coexist with human actions and interests through a series of different essays. While wildlife conservation in India has traditionally depended on fencing off fragments of areas and habitats and guarding them against human encroachment, such an approach is limited in value, given that formally designated Protected Areas occupy a very small proportion of territory and that nature and natural processes transcend human boundaries and cannot be contained within the borders of nature reserves. Effective conservation, therefore, cannot ever depend on limiting or excluding human activity when habitats and environments themselves have porous boundaries.
Recent research, moreover, shows that effective conservation efforts can occur beyond the borders of Protected Areas and within human settlements. This eclectic collection of essays explores this more inclusive form of conservation through case studies that focus on different species, different environments (whether urban or rural), and different social and political constituencies from local farming or fishing communities to the educated middle class to corporate interests and the state. The essays range from overfishing along the Indian shoreline to the fate of the Gangetic river dolphin and from Sarus Cranes in the rice fields of Uttar Pradesh to the enigmatic snow leopard in the Himalayas. They explore the pastures of the Deccan plateau and the plantations of the Western Ghats as well as the lakes of Bengaluru and urban forests in Delhi. In sum, they offer readers insight into the scope of inclusive conservation that adapts its principles and practices to human activity across a diversity of environments and contexts.
This book will be of interests to students and scholars of ecology and environmental studies, environmental history and sociology. It will also be of interest to nature and conservation specialists and activists as well as policy makers and planners.