- Art & Literary2014The wild heart of IndiaFountain Ink, March 2014, 3(5): 103-110.
Available here: http://fountainink.in/?p=5045&all=1
- Popular Article2014களக்காடு தந்த பரிசுகள். (On sighting various life forms in Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve)தி இந்து நாளிதழ். The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 30th September 2014.
Jeganathan, P. (2014).களக்காடு தந்த பரிசுகள் - தி இந்து நாளிதழ் உயிர்மூச்சு இணைப்பில், ‘இயற்கையின் வாசலில்’ தொடர் எண் – 13. 30th September 2014. Kalakkadu Thantha Parisugal– Iyarkayin Vaasalil ArticleSeries No.13 (On sighting various life forms in Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve). The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 30th September 2014.
- Popular Article2014அண்டங்காக்கையின் ஆச்சரியத் தேடல். (On Jungle Crows searching and feeding on tadpoles)தி இந்து நாளிதழ். The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 9th September 2014.
Jeganathan, P. (2014). அண்டங்காக்கையின் ஆச்சரியத் தேடல் - தி இந்து நாளிதழ் உயிர்மூச்சு இணைப்பில், ‘இயற்கையின் வாசலில்’ தொடர்எண் – 10. 9th September 2014. Andangkakkaiyin Acharya Thedal– Iyarkayin Vaasalil ArticleSeries No.10 (On Jungle Crows searching and feeding on tadpoles). The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 9th September 2014.
- Popular Article2014நண்டு வரைந்த அழகுக் கோலங்கள். (On Soldier Crab and its sunburst)தி இந்து நாளிதழ். The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 14th October 2014.
Jeganathan, P. (2014). நண்டு வரைந்த அழகுக் கோலங்கள் - தி இந்து நாளிதழ் உயிர்மூச்சு இணைப்பில், ‘இயற்கையின் வாசலில்’ தொடர் எண் – 15. 14th October 2014. Nandu Varaintha Azagu Kolangal– Iyarkayin Vaasalil ArticleSeries No.15 (On Soldier Crab and its sunburst). The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 14th October 2014.
- Popular Article2014The call of the indriFountain Ink, August 2014, 3(10): 37-51.
In Madagascar, island of endangered lemurs and shrinking forests, there is space for rapture and revival, too.
By T R Shankar Raman, Photos by Divya Mudappa and the author.
Available here: http://fountainink.in/?p=5687&all=1
- Popular Article2014Marmot in mealsSAEVUSDownload
PDF, 451 KB
Talks about dog depredation in the snow leopard habitat.
- Popular Article2014Survival of the fittestThe Hindu (Young World), 8 July
- Poster2014Snakes of the Western Ghats - Pit Viperssupported by Critical Ecosystem Partnership FundDownload
PDF, 14.2 MB
Large-scaled Pit Vipers(Trimeresurus Macrolepsis), Hump-nosed Pit Vipers(Hypnale Hypnale), Malbar Pit Vipers(Trimeresurus Malbaricus), Bamboo Pit Vipers, Horseshoe Pit Vipers
- Popular Article2014Perils of oil palmNewslink (Aizawl), 20 August 2014, page 2.
- Report2014NCF Annual Report 2013 & 2014
PDF, 2.25 MB
Colour Morphs, Forests, Grasslands, Chital, Barking Deer, Rodents, Domestic Livestock, Stray Dogs, Tamil
- Journal Article2014Seagrasses in the age of sea turtle conservation and shark overfishingFrontiers in Marine Science 1:28. doi: 10.3389/fmars. 2014.00028.Download
PDF, 1.95 MB
Efforts to conserve globally declining herbivorous green sea turtles have resulted in promising growth of some populations. These trends could significantly impact critical ecosystem services provided by seagrass meadows on which turtles feed. Expanding turtle populations could improve seagrass ecosystem health by removing seagrass biomass and preventing of the formation of sediment anoxia. However, overfishing of large sharks, the primary green turtle predators, could facilitate turtle populations growing beyond historical sizes and trigger detrimental ecosystem impacts mirroring those on land when top predators were extirpated. Experimental data from multiple ocean basins suggest that increasing turtle populations can negatively impact seagrasses, including triggering virtual ecosystem collapse. Impacts of large turtle populations on seagrasses are reduced in the presence of intact shark populations. Healthy populations of sharks and turtles, therefore, are likely vital to restoring or maintaining seagrass ecosystem structure, function, and their value in supporting fisheries and as a carbon sink.
- Journal Article2014Accounting for false positives improves estimates of occupancy from key informant interviewsDiversity and Distributions 20: 223-235Download
PDF, 443 KB
Much research in conservation biogeography is fundamentally dependent on obtaining reliable data on species distributions across space and time. Such data are now increasingly being generated using various types of public surveys. These data are often integrated with occupancy models to evaluate distributional patterns, range dynamics and conservation status of multiple species at broad spatio-temporal scales. Occupancy models have traditionally corrected for imperfect detection due to false negatives while implicitly assuming that false positives do not occur. However, public survey data are also prone to false-positive errors, which when unaccounted for can cause bias in occupancy estimates. We test whether false positives in a dataset collected from public surveys lead to overestimation of species site occupancy and whether estimators that simultaneously account for false-positive and false-negative errors improve occupancy estimates.
Western Ghats, India.
We fit occupancy models that simultaneously account for false positives and negatives to data collected from a large-scale key informant interview survey for 30 species of large vertebrates. We tested their performance against standard occupancy models that account only for false negatives.
Standard occupancy models that correct only for false negatives tended to overestimate species occupancy due to false-positive errors. Occupancy models that simultaneously accounted for false positives and negatives had greater support [lower Akaike's information criterion (AIC)] and, consistent with predictions, generated systematically lower occupancy estimates than standard models. Furthermore, accounting for false positives improved the accuracy of occupancy estimates despite the added complexity to the statistical estimator.
Integrating large-scale public surveys with occupancy modelling approaches is a powerful tool for informing conservation and management. However, in many if not most cases, it will be important to explicitly account for false positives to ensure the reliability of occupancy estimates obtained from public survey datasets such as key informant interviews, volunteer surveys, citizen science programmes, historical archives and acoustic surveys.
- Popular Article2014From hunters to protectorsThe Hindu in School, 23 July
- Book Chapter2014Managing conflicts over livestock depredation by large carnivoresIn Human-Wildlife Conflict in the Mountains of SAARC Region - Compilation of Successful Management Strategies and Practices, SAARC Forestry Centre Office Thimphu, BhutanDownload
PDF, 1020 KB
Managing wildlife-caused damage to human interests has become an important aspect of contemporary conservation management. Conflicts between pastoralism and carnivore conservation over livestock depredation pose a serious challenge to endangered carnivores worldwide, and have become an important livelihood concern locally. Here, we first review the primary causes of these conflicts, their socio-ecological correlates, and commonly employed mitigation measures. We then describe a community-based program to manage conflicts over livestock depredation by snow leopards Panthera uncia and wolves Canis lupus. A threats-based conceptual model of conflict management is presented. Conflicts over livestock depredation are characterized by complex, multi-scale interactions between carnivore and livestock behavioral ecology, animal husbandry, human psyche, culture, world-views, and socio-economic and education levels of affected peoples. A diversity of commonly employed conflict-mitigation measures is available. They aim at (i) reducing livestock depredation through better livestock herding, use of physical, chemical or psychological barriers, removal of carnivores, and use of livestock guard animals, (ii) offsetting economic losses through damage compensation and insurance programmes, and (iii) increasing peoples’ tolerance of carnivores through indirect approaches such as conservation education and economic incentives. For effective management, conflicts need to be understood along two important dimensions, viz., the reality of damage caused to humans, and the psyche and perceptions of humans who suffer wildlife caused damage. The efficacy of commonly used mitigation measures is variable. A combination of measures that reduce the level of livestock depredation, share or offset economic losses, and improve the social carrying capacity for carnivores will be more effective in managing conflicts than standalone measures
- Journal Article2014The response of birds and mixed-species bird flocks to human-modified landscapes in Sri Lanka and southern IndiaForest Ecology and Management 329: 384–392Download
PDF, 705 KB
While there is no substitute for undisturbed forest, secondary forests and agroforests are increasingly common in tropical areas and may be critical to conservation plans. We compared the diversity and abundance of birds and the characteristics of mixed-species bird flocks in forests inside protected reserves to ‘‘buffer’’ areas, consisting of degraded forests and non-native timber plantations at reserve boundaries, and to agricultural areas. We monitored a network of 57 transects placed over an altitudinal gradient (90–2180 masl) in Sri Lanka and southern India, collecting 398 complete flock observations and 35,686 observations of birds inside and outside of flocks over two years. Flocks were rarely found in agri- cultural areas. However, the density of flocks in buffer areas was similar to that in forests, although buffer flocks were smaller in average flock size and differed significantly in composition, as measured by the proportion of species that were classified, from the literature, as forest interior or open-landscape species. While flock composition was distinct between agricultural, buffer and forest areas, the differences in the composition of flocks was not as great as the differences between the overall communities in these different habitats. Considering buffer transects alone, pine plantations retained fewer forest interior species in flocks than did forests, and small areas of agriculture and abandoned agriculture attracted open-landscape species. Though clearly not equivalent to protected forests, degraded forests and agroforests in buffer areas still hold some conservation value, with forest species found particularly in mixed-species flocks in these human-modified habitats.
- Journal Article2014Roads emerging as a critical threat to leopards in India?Cat News 60 Spring 2014 (30)Download
PDF, 565 KB
Leopards (Panthera pardus) face severe threat from poaching, loss of habitat and killing in retaliation to conflict. However, in India a new threat appears to be emerging in the form of vehicle accident mortalities. In the past 60 months 23 leopards have been recorded as killed due to road accidents in the southern Indian state of Karnataka alone. When roads overlap with important wildlife habitats, considerable scrutiny and critical conservation planning is urgently required
- Popular Article2014பஷீரின் குடுமிக் கழுகு. (On watching Legge’s Hawk Eagle Nest)தி இந்து நாளிதழ். The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 5th August 2014.
Jeganathan, P. (2014).பஷீரின் குடுமிக் கழுகு - தி இந்து நாளிதழ் உயிர்மூச்சு இணைப்பில், ‘இயற்கையின் வாசலில்’ தொடர்எண் – 5. 5th August 2014. Basheerin Kudumik Kazugu– Iyarkayin Vaasalil ArticleSeries No.5 (On watching Legge’s Hawk Eagle Nest). The Hindu Tamil News Daily. 5th August 2014.
- Journal Article2014Genetic diversity and population structure of Lantana camara in India indicates multiple introductions and gene flow.Plant Biology. 16(3): 651-658.Download
PDF, 278 KB
Lantana camara is a highly invasive plant, which has spread over 60 countries and island groups of Asia, Africa and Australia. In India, it was introduced in the early nineteenth century, since when it has expanded and gradually established itself in almost every available ecosystem. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of this plant in India in order to understand its introduction, subsequent range expansion and gene flow. A total of 179 individuals were sequenced at three chloroplast loci and 218 individuals were genotyped for six nuclear microsatellites. Both chloroplasts (nine haplotypes) and microsatellites (83 alleles) showed high genetic diversity. Besides, each type of marker confirmed the presence of private polymorphism. We uncovered low to medium population structure in both markers, and found a faint signal of isolation by distance with microsatellites. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed multiple divergent genetic clusters. Taken together, these findings (i.e. high genetic diversity with private alleles and multiple genetic clusters) suggest that Lantana was introduced multiple times and gradually underwent spatial expansion with recurrent gene flow.
- Journal Article2014Acoustic identification of bats in the southern Western Ghats, IndiaActa Chiropterologica 16: 213–222Download
PDF, 347 KB
Bats play crucial roles in ecosystems, are increasingly used as bio-indicators and are an important component of tropical diversity. Ecological studies and conservation-oriented monitoring of bats in the tropics benefit from published libraries of echolocation calls, which are not readily available for many tropical ecosystems. Here, we present the echolocation calls of 15 species from the Valparai plateau in the Anamalai Hills, southern Western Ghats of India: three rhinolophids (Rhinolophus beddomei, R. rouxii (indorouxii), R. lepidus), one hipposiderid (Hipposideros pomona), nine vespertilionids (Barbastella leucomelas darjelingensis, Hesperoptenus tickelli, Miniopterus fuliginosus, M. pusillus, Myotis horsfieldii, M. montivagus, Pipistrellus ceylonicus, Scotophilus heathii, S. kuhlii), one pteropodid (Rousettus leschenaultii) and one megadermatid (Megaderma spasma). Discriminant function analyses using leave-one-out cross validation classified bats producing calls with a strong constant frequency (CF) component with 100% success and bats producing frequency modulated (FM) calls with 90% success. For five species, we report their echolocation calls for the first time, and we present call frequencies for some species that differ from those published from other parts of the species’ ranges. This exemplifies the need for more local call libraries from tropical regions to be collected and published in order to record endemic species and accurately identify species whose calls vary biogeographically.
PDF also available here: http://dx.doi.org/10.3161/150811014X683408