- Book ChapterIn pressTop-down or bottom-up: the role of the government and local institutions in regulating shifting cultivation in the Upper Siang district, Eastern Himalaya, India (in press)Shifting Cultivation and Environmental Change: Indigenous People, Agriculture and Forest Conservation (Ed: Malcolm Cairns), Published by Routledge.
- Book ChapterIn pressConflicts over snow leopard conservation and livestock productionConservation Conflicts, Redpath S, Young J, Gutierrez R, Wood K (eds.), Cambridge University Press.
- Book Chapter2018Chapter 6. Methods to reduce conflicts between cranes and farmersEditors: Jane E Austin and Kerryn Morrisson; pp. 117-141. https://www.savingcranes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/cranes_and_agriculture_web_2018.pdf; published by International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, Wisconsin, USADownload
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Alternative methods to reduce conflicts between cranes and farmers range from relatively simple, inexpensive disturbance methods to changes in land use at a landscape scale. Visual and acoustics disturbance methods can be useful for small fields or gardens but require frequent changes to prevent habituation by the cranes. Changes in farming practices can be implemented by individual farmers and matched to the local situation. By altering timing of seeding and harvest, harvest methods, and other management practices, farmers can minimize the vulnerability of the crop or its attractiveness to cranes. Crop damage can be reduced by strategically locating high-risk crops away from crane roosts or high-use areas. Diversionary fields, where cranes can forage on nutritious, preferred foods near their roost without disturbance, are one of the more effective methods to reduce crop damage. Artificial feeding may be appropriate as a temporary measure but its long-term use should only be a last option where no alternative wintering areas or food resources are available or restorable. Chemical treatment of seeds can deter cranes from taking newly sown seeds and seedlings. Conflicts with farmers can be mitigated by financial or other compensation, or through conservation approaches. Financial mechanisms should be used cautiously as they can dilute or corrupt local traditions of tolerance. An integrated approach, using several methods, is more likely to be effective in the long term. Farmers and communities are more likely to embrace alternative measures if they understand basic crane ecology and if the measures are clearly beneficial to the farmers. Developing a broader range of tools to better understand the conflict, to understand farmer perceptions of cranes, and to help implement strategies to improve positivist attitudes is necessary. Multi-disciplinary approaches that incorporate social, economic as well as ecological aspects of the issue are very rare, and much needed to develop workable solutions.
- Book Chapter2018Public Participation in Understanding BiodiversityPp 160-165 in Karnataka State Biodiversity Board, Souvenir 2003-2018
- Book Chapter2018Narrative from Indian seas: Marine resource use, Ecosystem responses, and the accidents of history.Pages 229-248 in G. Cederlöf and M. Rangarajan (editors), 'At Nature's Edge: The Global Present and Long-Term History,' Oxford University Press, New Delhi. 331 pp.
- Book Chapter2018Living with Snow Leopards: a pluralistic approach to conservationIn Conservation from the Margins. (Eds) Umesh Srinivasan & Nandini Velho. Orient Blackswan
- Book Chapter2018Expanding nature conservation: considering wide landscapes and deep histories.Pages 249-267 in G. Cederlöf and M. Rangarajan (editors), 'At Nature's Edge: The Global Present and Long-Term History,' Oxford University Press, New Delhi. 331 pp.
- Book Chapter2018Large Carnivore and Conservation and Management
- Book Chapter2018Case study. Sarus Cranes and Indian farmers: an ancient coexistenceEditors: Jane E Austin and Kerryn Morrisson; pp. 206-210. https://www.savingcranes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/cranes_and_agriculture_web_2018.pdf; published by International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, Wisconsin, USADownload
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Sarus Cranes (Grus antigone) in India have benefited from long-standing cultural and traditional values of farmers. Substantial breeding populations persist even on landscapes entirely converted to human-dominated croplands. Four distinct population-level behaviors are recognized. Prominent growing conservation challenges for Sarus Cranes are highlighted. These include localized threats like egg mortality and land use change, and broader threats like pesticide-related mortality, industrialization, land use change, and changing climate. Challenges to Sarus Crane conservation are enormous, but persisting traditional agriculture and positive farmer attitudes offer considerable advantages. Framing and developing initiatives around these advantages will be critical to executing efficient and long-term conservation interventions.
- Book Chapter2017Birds in Relation to Farming and Livestock Grazing in the Indian Trans-HimalayasIn Bird Migration across the Himalayas: Wetland Functioning amidst Mountains and Glaciers
- Book Chapter2016Livestock Predation by Snow Leopards: Conflicts and the Search for SolutionsIn Snow leopards: Biodiversity of the World eds (McCarthy T, Mallon D.) Academic press pp 59- 66.
- Book Chapter2016Richness and size distribution of large herbivores in the HimalayaIn: Asian large herbivore ecology, Ahrestani, F., Sankaran, M. (eds.), Springer.Download
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Species diversity across several taxa ranging from plants to vertebrates is reported to decrease with altitude, or to show a mid-elevation peak in mountain systems. Plant biomass availability for herbivores is similarly expected to decline with altitude as temperature becomes limiting. However, the relationship between herbivore species richness and altitude has not been examined in detail. We show that while the overall regional pattern (gamma-richness) for 25 large-herbivore species (56 % grazers, 44 % browsers/mixed feeders) in the Western Himalayas shows a mid-elevation peak, the species richness of grazers increases nearly monotonically with altitude peaking at 4000–5000 m. Median body mass of herbivores decreased with altitude, suggesting greater suitability of higher elevations for smaller bodied herbivores. We propose that seasonal altitudinal migration patterns, biogeographic influences, increases in the abundance of graminoids, and an increase in plant nutrients with altitude might explain the unusual high grazer species richness at higher altitudes in the Himalayan Mountains.
- Book Chapter2016South Asia: India. In Snow leopards. Biodiversity of the world: conservation from genes to landscapes. Series editor: Philip J. Nyhus, Volume editors: Thomas McCarthy, David Mallon.Elsevier - Academic Press, Pages 457-469, ISBN: 978-0-12-802213-9Download
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India has a rich natural history record from the Himalaya spanning over a century. In this paper we provide an overview of existing knowledge on snow leopard, especially from the more recent studies. A knowledge gap analysis revealed barely 3% of its range is relatively well studied, although snow leopards occur pervasively across ca. 100,000 km2 in the Indian Himalaya. Only 37% of its range appears to be ‘good’ habitat. Based on recent density estimates and their extrapolation over the range, India is likely to support about 500 snow leopards. Threats vary regionally, but livestock grazing by migratory herders and recent developmental pressures appear to be the most serious conservation issues threatening snow leopard and other wildlife in the snow leopard range. Given the pervasive snow leopard occurrence and human pressures, the general consensus and national strategy is to formulate and implement knowledge based, participatory programmes over large landscapes.
- Book Chapter2015Hope for hornbillsIn: Allison Hegan (Ed.), Endangered Tales.
- Book Chapter2015The chevrotainsPages 146-158 in A. J. T. Johnsingh and Nima Manjrekar (Editors), Mammals of South Asia: Volume 2. Universities Press, Hyderabad.
- Book Chapter2015The Nilgiri TahrPages 409-432 in A. J. T. Johnsingh & N. Manjrekar (editors) Mammals of South Asia. Volume 2. Universities Press, Hyderabad, India.
Keywords: Nilgiritragus hylocrius
- Book Chapter2015SciuridsIn: Mammals of South Asia: Volume 2, (eds A. J. T. Johnsingh & N. Manjrekar), pp. 513-573. Universities Press, Hyderabad.
- Book Chapter2015Finding the middle road: Grounded approaches to mitigate highway impacts in tiger reservesHandbook of Road Ecology, Editors : Rodney van der Ree, Daniel J. Smith and Clara Grilo. Publishers : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Book Chapter2015Chital Axis axisPages 192-222 in A. J. T. Johnsingh and Nima Manjrekar (Editors), Mammals of South Asia: Volume 2. Universities Press, Hyderabad.
- Book Chapter2014Nature Without Borders: An IntroductionPages 1-40 in Rangarajan, M., Madhusudan, M. D., & Shahabuddin, G. (eds.) Nature Without Borders. Orient Blackswan.