- Conference Proceedings2018Snow leopard and prey: Landscape-level distribution modeling & impacts of migratory livestock grazing in Symposium Assimilated Knowledges: an integrated approach to conservation in snow leopard landscapesConservation Asia, 2018, Society for Conservation Biology
- Conference Proceedings2017Migratory livestock grazing significantly impacts rangeland vegetation and wild-ungulate population in the Indian Trans-Himalaya12th International Mammalogical Congress, 2017. Perth, Australia
Intense livestock grazing outcompetes wild-ungulates in low-productivity rangelands. This is a long-standing and highly debated conservation problem globally. We examined impacts of migratory livestock grazing on Trans-Himalayan rangeland and Asiatic ibex, a wild-ungulate and primary prey of the endangered snow leopard. Vegetation and ibex were sampled in an intensely grazed (livestock density 63 sheep-goat/km2) and ungrazed areas, during spring (before-grazing), summer (during-grazing) and autumn (after-grazing). Proportionate to vegetated area, independent randomly laid 1mX1m plots were sampled for vegetation cover and biomass estimation (Cover: NUngrazed=237; NGrazed=127; Biomass: NUngrazed=119; NGrazed=64). Ibex density and young:adult-female ratios were estimated by repeatedly sampling 17 trails using double-observer method across both treatments for the three time periods and two consecutive years. Graminoid and herb biomass were significantly higher in ungrazed than grazed area (ANOVA; Graminoid: FTreatment=16.05; P=<0.001; Herb: FTreatment=22.75; P=< 0.001). Overall vegetation composition was dissimilar across ungrazed and grazed area (Morisita Index 0.18), however, palatable species composition was similar (Morisita Index 0.70). Biomass of palatable species was 2.25 times higher in ungrazed than grazed area. Total off-take of dry forage by migratory livestock from grazed pastures (61 km2) was 10,658 kgs km-2 over two months of grazing. Ibex density was 1.80-7.0 times higher in ungrazed than grazed area in 2015, while 2.45-4.7 times higher in ungrazed than grazed area during 2016. Ibex yearling:adult-female ratio was six times higher in ungrazed than grazed area. Significant reduction in forage availability lowered ibex density and yearling:adult-female ratios in grazed area, suggesting migratory livestock outcompetes ibex through exploitative competition.
- Conference Proceedings2016Impact of migratory livestock grazing on rangeland vegetation and wild-ungulate in the Indian Trans-Himalaya6th World Congress on Mountain Ungulates & 5th International Symposium on Mouflon
- Conference Proceedings2009Opportunities and challenges for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation in the southern Western Ghats, IndiaShifting Trajectories of Ecology and Coexistence: Proceedings of the National Seminar on People and Tigers. Kerala Forest Department, Periyar Tiger Reserve, Thekkady, India. pp. 135-147Download
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The southern Western Ghats is an important ecological subunit of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot. Dominated by moist forests, including tropical wet evergreen forests, it has higher levels of biodiversity and endemism than the rest of the Western Ghats. There are 19 Protected Areas in the southern Western Ghats that cover 36% of its total area, among which Parambikulam, Anamalai and Periyar Tiger Reserves stand out as primary source habitats for tigers. The region is fragmented from north to south into the Anamalai, Periyar and Agasthyamalai landscapes. Given the crucial need for large, contiguous areas to ensure the persistence of wide-ranging large predators such as the tiger Panthera tigris and its prey, it is important to establish and maintain habitat connectivity within and between these landscapes, whereas conservation efforts today are focused on small, insular protected areas. Possibilities for forging connectivity between the Anamalai and Periyar landscapes along Kerala state are nonexistent owing to the loss of Devikulam Range in Munnar Forest Division to cardamom cultivation and developments related to tourism and Kumily Range in Kottayam Forest Division to encroachment. The link on the Tamil Nadu side, along the steep eastern slopes of Theni Forest Division, is extremely narrow and consequently unsuitable for large mammal movement at present. Our surveys, however, point to the possibility of bridging this gap through a corridor at Kottavasal. Recent camera-trapping studies by the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun have highlighted the precarious situation of tigers in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve in the Agasthyamalai landscape. Therefore, establishment of the Kottavasal corridor and the Kulathupuzha Conservation Reserve is a must to secure the future of tiger in the Agasthyamalai landscape. It is important that all endeavours now be made to enable the Anamalai and Periyar-Agasthyamalai landscapes to each sustain a minimum population of 100 adult tigers. Controlling poaching of prey species especially sambar Cervus unicolor, establishment of protected areas such as Kodaikanal, Megamalai and Kulathupuzha, acquisition of failed private estates to facilitate large mammal recolonization and restoration of native vegetation in exotic species plantations are priority tasks that need immediate attention in order to realize the huge opportunities for tiger conservation in the southern Western Ghats.
- Conference Proceedings2003Protected areas and beyond: wildlife conservation in the Trans-Himalaya.Bombay Natural History Society WORKSHOP 'A LOOK AT THREATENED SPECIES'. NOVEMBER 13, 2003, Bombay.