- Report2018Population assessment of the Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius) using the Double-observer Survey method in the Anamalai Tiger ReserveTechnical Report, Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore, India
- Report2016Awareness and coexistence measures to conserve endangered lion-tailed macaques in the Valparai landscape, Western Ghats.Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.
- Report2016ಚಿರತೆಗಳು ಜನ ನಿಬಿಡ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳನ್ನು ಪ್ರವೇಶಿಸಿದ ಸನ್ನಿವೇಶಗಳನ್ನು ಸುರಕ್ಷಿತವಾಗಿ ನಿಭಾಯಿಸುವ ವಿಧಾನಗಳು (Safely handling situations when leopards enter human dense areas - Kannada version)October 2016
ಚಿರತೆಯು ಜನ ನಿಬಿಡ ಪ್ರದೇಶಕ್ಕೆ ಬಂದಾಗಿನ ಸಂದರ್ಭಗಳನ್ನು ನಿಭಾಯಿಸುವಲ್ಲಿ ವಿವಿಧ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಗಳು ಕೈಗೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕಾದ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಕ್ರಮಗಳನ್ನು ಈ ಕೈಪಿಡಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ನೀಡಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಚಿರತೆ ಪಟ್ಟಣ, ಗ್ರಾಮದಂತಹ ವಸತಿ ಪ್ರದೇಶಕ್ಕೆ ಬಂದಾಗ, ಚಿರತೆಯು ನೀರಿರುವ ಅಥವಾ ನೀರಿಲ್ಲದ ಬಾವಿಗೆ ಬಿದ್ದಾಗ ಮತ್ತು ಚಿರತೆಯು ಉರುಳಿಗೆ ಸಿಕ್ಕಿಕೊಂಡ ಸಂದರ್ಭಗಳನ್ನು ಪ್ರಾಯೋಗಿಕವಾಗಿ ನಿಭಾಯಿಸುವ ಬಗೆಗಿನ ಮಾಹಿತಿಯನ್ನು ಇದರಲ್ಲಿ ನೀಡಲಾಗಿದೆ.
ಚಿರತೆಗಳು ಜನ ನಿಬಿಡ ಪ್ರದೇಶಕ್ಕೆ ಬರುವ ಸನ್ನಿವೇಶಗಳನ್ನು ಆಗಾಗ್ಗೆ ಎದುರಿಸುವ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಅರಣ್ಯ ಇಲಾಖೆ ಮತ್ತು ವಿವಿಧ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಗಳು ಇಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕಾದ ಉಪಕರಣಗಳ ಮಾಹಿತಿಯನ್ನು ಸಹ ಕೈಪಿಡಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ನೀಡಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ಸರ್ಕಾರದಿಂದ ವನ್ಯಜೀವಿ ಹಾವಳಿಗೆ ಪರಿಹಾರ ನೀಡುವ ಪ್ರಕ್ರಿಯೆಯ ಬಗ್ಗೆ, ಒಂದು ಪ್ರದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಚಿರತೆಯ ಇರುವಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ಧೃಡಪಡಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಬಗ್ಗೆ, ಅಧಿಕ ಸಂಘರ್ಷ ಇರುವ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಅರಿವು ಮೂಡಿಸುವ ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳನ್ನು ಹಮ್ಮಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಸಹ ಮಾಹಿತಿಯನ್ನು ನೀಡಲಾಗಿದೆ.
- Report2016Safely handling situations when leopards enter human dense areas - English versionSeptember 2016Download
PDF, 21.9 MB
This manual covers key measures to be taken by various agencies in handling situations when leopards venture into human dense areas. It provides practical information to handle leopard situations when they enter cities, towns, villages, when leopards fall into dry or wells with water, or when they are found caught in snares.
The manual also provides information on the equipment that's required to be kept by the forest department and other agencies in areas where there are repeated instances of leopards entering human dense areas. It provides information on Karnataka government procedures in providing ex-gratia, documenting leopard presence in an area, and outreach activities that could be undertaken in high interface areas.
This manual is also available in Kannada.
- Report2016NCF Annual Report 2016
- Report2015Tigers of Malai Mahadeshwara and Cauvery LandscapeNovember 2015Download
PDF, 5.13 MB
Report on tiger numbers in the dry forests in the confluence of Western and Eastern Ghats in southern India
- Report2014Ecology and conservation status of leopards in Bhadravathi Territorial DivisionOctober 2014Download
PDF, 15.6 MB
Despite the leopard (Panthera pardus) being a highly conflict-prone species with a wide distribution range, there are few population estimates of this species in Karnataka, especially outside protected areas. Effective conservation of this large carnivore and mitigation measures towards leopard conflict requires reliable estimates of population density in various habitats and landscapes with different management priorities. We conducted a population estimation exercise for the leopard using photographic capture-recapture analysis, using spatially explicit capture–recapture (SECR) models, in the multiple-use forests in Bhadravathi Division in central-interior Karnataka. Density estimates for leopards in this 370 km2 area, which includes 14 state, minor forests and sandal reserves, all continuous to each other, was found to be 11.1/100 km2 (95% CI 9.7-12.2/100 km2) with an estimated population size of 44 individuals (95% CI 39-49). We also recorded 14 species of large and small leopard prey from this area including gaur, sambar, chital, barking deer, four-horned antelope, wild pig and mouse deer. Using publicly available forest cover analyses tools, we estimate that the area has lost forest cover of ~14% since their notification between 1905 and 1941. We propose that the forest areas surveyed be declared as a wildlife sanctuary under the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 to uphold to their rich wildlife values.
- Report2011People and predators: Leopard diet and interactions with people in a tea plantation dominated landscape in the Anamalai Hills, Western Ghats.NCF Technical Report #18, Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.Download
PDF, 3.77 MB
Leopards use a wide range of habitats from natural forests to human-dominated landscapes and conflicts sometimes arise from loss of livestock or attacks on people in interface areas. In a fragmented rainforest and plantation landscape in southern India, we examined diet of large carnivores (particularly leopards) using scat analysis with DNA-based identification of predator species, and relative abundance of prey species in different land-uses using transect surveys. Spatio-temporal patterns in conflict and attitudes of local people were analysed from conflict records with the Forest Department and questionnaire surveys in 28 plantation colonies and eight tribal settlements. Large carnivores predominantly (98.1%) consumed wild prey species and domestic prey species contributed <2% to overall prey biomass. Similarly, for leopards four wild prey species (Indian muntjac, Indian spotted chevrotain, sambar, and Indian porcupine) contributed 95.1% of prey biomass, with the rest being minor wild prey species (no livestock in identified scats). In the landscape, wild prey species persisted but varied in relative abundance by land-use type, with forest fragments supporting higher abundances of most species. ... In a 3-year period (2008 – 2010), 32 head of livestock (cow, buffalo, and goat) were reported by respondents as lost to carnivore depredation (economic loss averaging INR 9732 or ~USD 216 per incident). Over the same period, there were eight attacks on people, resulting in three fatalities (all children). Attitudes towards leopards were not affected by incidence of livestock depredation, but related instead to occurrence of attacks on people in the colony. Livestock depredation at a colony was significantly and positively related to livestock numbers, and interactively with distance from protected area (positive) and number of people (negative). To minimise conflicts, we suggest adoption of a combination of measures including better herding, improved livestock corrals, safety precautions for adults and children at night in estates, and proper waste management, besides protection of habitat remnants that sustain wild prey populations. These will help safeguard human life and reduce economic losses, thereby mitigating conflict and promoting human – leopard coexistence in such landscapes.
- Report2011Wildlife in the Havukal – Warwick estates, Nilgiris: a field survey and inventory report.Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.
Jeganathan, P. & Murali, R. (2011). Wildlife in the Havukal – Warwick estates, Nilgiris: a field survey and inventory report. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.
- Report2011Framing ecologically sound policy on linear intrusions affecting wildlife habitats: Background paper for the National Board for Wildlife, Ministry of Environment and Forest, India.
PDF available at iMinistry of Environment and Forest, India, website. Click here to download.
- Report2008Hornbills and endemic birds: a conservation status survey across the Western Ghats, India.NCF Technical Report No. 17, Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.
- Report2008Tribes of the Anamalais: livelihood and resource-use patterns of communities in the rainforests of the Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and Valparai plateau.NCF Technical Report No. 16, Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.Download
PDF, 1.5 MB
The Western Ghats hill range of India, recognised as a global biodiversity hotspot, also contains impressive cultural diversity including a number of tribal communities. This study uses past records and primary field research to describe aspects of ethnic identity, social change, demography, livelihoods, and resource use among three tribal communities in the Anamalai hills along the Western Ghats mountains of southern India. Kadar, Muthuvar, and Malai Malasar communities across 190 households in 8 settlements located adjacent to rainforests in the Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary were studied to examine current modes of existence vis-à-vis their past and the use of rainforest patches they live within. (Download PDF to read more)
- Report2007Review of human – elephant conflict mitigation measures practised in South AsiaWWF AREAS Technical Support Document 2007. World Bank – WWF Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Use, AREAS, Centre for Conservation and Research, Nature Conservation Foundation.
- Report2006Hanging by a thread: Spider communities in rainforest fragments and shade-coffee plantations in the Anamalai hills, Western Ghats, India.NCF Technical Report No. 13. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.
- Report2004The elephant hills: conservation of wild Asian elephants in a landscape of fragmented rainforests and plantations in the Anamalais, IndiaNCF Technical Report #10, Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore
- Report2004Effects of landscape matrix and plantations on birds in tropical rainforest fragments of the Western Ghats, India.NCF Technical Report No. 9. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.Download
PDF, 652 KB
As large nature reserves occupy only a fraction of the earth’s land surface, conservation biologists are critically examining the role of private lands, habitat fragments, and plantations for conservation. This study in a global biodiversity hotspot and endemic bird area, the Western Ghats mountain range of India, examined the effects of connectivity of rainforest fragments with shade-coffee plantations and the influence of habitat structure and floristics on tropical rainforest bird communities. Systematic sampling for habitat and birds was carried out in 13 sites, including six fragments (three relatively isolated and three with canopy continuity with adjoining shade-coffee plantations and forests), six plantations differing in canopy tree species composition (five coffee and one cardamom), and one control site containing a large relatively undisturbed primary rainforest in the Valparai plateau of the Anamalai hills. Around 3300 detections of about 6000 individual birds belonging to 106 species were obtained. The plantations were depauperate in relation to rainforest in rainforest bird species, particularly endemic species, but one site (cardamom plantation) with an entirely native canopy of tall rainforest trees, had species richness and bird abundance values comparable to that of primary rainforest. Plantation and fragment sites that were less isolated (more canopy continuity in surrounding landscape) tended to support greater number of rainforest and lesser number of open-forest bird species and individuals than more isolated sites. Rainforest bird richness and abundance were positively related to the vegetation component representing densities of woody plants, canes, lianas, and bamboos. Bird community composition was however related only to floristic (tree species) composition of sites. The results indicate that the maintenance or restoration of such attributes in plantations and fragments can aid in bird conservation in the region. The potential of rainforest fragments and shade-coffee and cardamom plantations for bird conservation outside wildlife protected areas is emphasised.
- Report2001Impact of fragmentation and plantations on rainforest birds in the Anamalai hills, southern Western Ghats, India.NCF Technical Report No. 5. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore.