M D Madhusudan

Scientist, Western Ghats


MSc, Wildlife Institute of India, 1995
PhD, National Institute of Advanced Studies, 2003

I am interested in understanding the ecological and social aspects of human activities that impinge on large wild organisms. I am also concerned about how such knowledge can be employed effectively to mobilize conservation action and change on the ground. Besides this, my academic interests include biology of human-wildlife conflicts; ecology of large herbivores and carnivores; interface of conservation science with society, economy and politics; people-and-parks issues; alternate models of management of wildlife protected areas; and conservation issues in the tropics, particularly, the South and South-east Asian region. My current interests focus on: i) assessments of human impact on large mammals, ii) the population dynamics, behaviour and conservation of the Asian elephant and gaur, and iii) using historical and ecological data in understanding the drivers of distributional change for select large mammals and birds in the Western Ghats.


9 madhusudan electricfence july2008

Making good neighbours

Understanding and reducing conflict between farmers and elephants

Young 20elephant 20bull 20  20md 20madhusudan

Making room for elephants

Landscape level conservation planning for elephants in Karnataka

Arunachal macaque photo by kripaljyoti mazumdar

Monkey of the deep jungle

Ecology and conservation of Macaca munzala

April 6 %2818%29

Primates in fragments

Behavioural ecology of primates in the Upper Brahmaputra Valley of Assam


The secret lives of leopards

Understanding the ecology of leopards in Karnataka 

Boat 20and 20turtle

Turf Wars

Understanding turtle-fisher conflicts in Lakshadweep seagrass meadows


  • Journal Article
    From intent to action: A case study for the expansion of tiger conservation from southern India
    Sanjay Gubbi, N S Harish, Aparna S, H C Poornesha, Vasanth Reddy, Javeed Mumtaz, M D Madhusudan
    Global Ecology and Conservation, 9: 11–20

    PDF, 2.61 MB

    To conserve a large, wide-ranging carnivore like the tiger, it is critical not only to maintain populations at key habitat sites, but also to enable the persistence of the species across much larger landscapes. To do this, it is important to establish well-linked habitat networks where sites for survival and reproduction of tigers are complemented by opportunities for dispersal and colonization. On the ground, expanding protection to areas with a potential for tiger recovery still remains the means of operationalizing the landscape approach. Yet, while the gazetting of protected areas is necessary to enable this, it is not sufficient. It is essential to benchmark and monitor the process by which establishment of protected areas must necessarily be followed by management changes that enable a recovery of tigers, their prey and their habitats. In this paper, we report a case study from the Cauvery and Malai Mahadeshwara Hills Wildlife Sanctuaries of southern India, where we document the infrastructural and institutional changes that ensued after an unprecedented expansion of protected areas in this landscape. Further, we establish ecological benchmarks of the abundance and distribution of tigers, the relative abundance of their prey, and the status of their habitats, against which the recovery of tigers in this area of vast conservation potential may be assessed over time.

  • Journal Article
    Distribution, relative abundance, and conservation status of Asian elephants in Karnataka, southern India
    M D Madhusudan, Narayan Sharma, R Raghunath, N Baskaran, C M Bipin, Sanjay Gubbi, A J T Johnsingh, Jayanta Kulkarni, H N Kumara, Prachi Mehta, Rajeev Pillay, R Sukumar
    Biological Conservation 187:34-40

    PDF, 1.57 MB

    Karnataka state in southern India supports a globally significant—and the country’s largest—population of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. A reliable map of Asian elephant distribution and measures of spatial variation in their abundance, both vital needs for conservation and management action, are unavailable not only in Karnataka, but across its global range. Here, we use various data gathered between 2000 and 2015 to map the distribution of elephants in Karnataka at the scale of the smallest forest management unit, the ‘beat’, while also presenting data on elephant dung density for a subset of ‘elephant beats.’ Elephants occurred in 972 out of 2855 forest beats of Karnataka. Sixty percent of these 972 beats—and 55% of the forest habitat—lay outside notified protected areas (PAs), and included lands designated for agricultural production and human dwelling. While median elephant dung density inside protected areas was nearly thrice as much as outside, elephants routinely occurred in or used habitats outside PAs where human density, land fraction under cultivation, and the interface between human-dominated areas and forests were greater. Based on our data, it is clear that India’s framework for elephant conservation— which legally protects the species wherever it occurs, but protects only some of its habitats—while being appropriate in furthering their conservation within PAs, seriously falters in situations where elephants reside in and/or seasonally use areas outside PAs. Attempts to further elephant conservation in production and dwelling areas have extracted high costs in human, elephant, material and monetary terms in Karnataka. In such settings, conservation planning exercises are necessary to determine where the needs of elephants—or humans—must take priority over the other, and to achieve that in a manner that is based not only on reliable scientific data but also on a process of public reasoning.

  • Popular Article
    Where elephants roam: mapping the distribution of an endangered megaherbivore
    EcoLogic: The NCF Blog

    Link: http://blog.ncf-india.org/2015/06/11/where-elephants-roam/

  • Popular Article
    Current ecological concerns in the power sector: options to avoid or minimise impacts
    Pages 89-100 in M N Goswami and P Chaudhry (editors) An Epochal Shift in the Idea of India-Meeting aspirations? IPPAI Knowledge Report, Independent Power Producers Association of India, New Delhi.

    PDF, 1.36 MB

  • Book Chapter
    The Nilgiri Tahr
    Clifford Rice, M D Madhusudan
    Pages 409-432 in A. J. T. Johnsingh & N. Manjrekar (editors) Mammals of South Asia. Volume 2. Universities Press, Hyderabad, India.

    Keywords: Nilgiritragus hylocrius

  • Journal Article
    Looking beyond parks: the conservation value of unprotected areas for hornbills in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya
    Oryx, 49:303-311

    PDF, 383 KB

    The loss of tropical forests and associated biodiversity is a global concern. Conservation efforts in tropical countries such as India have mostly focused on state-administered protected areas despite the existence of vast tracts of forest outside these areas. We studied hornbills (Bucerotidae), an ecologically important vertebrate group and a flagship for tropical forest conservation, to assess the importance of forests outside protected areas in Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India. We conducted a state-wide survey to record encounters with hornbills in seven protected areas, six state-managed reserved forests and six community-managed unclassed forests. We estimated the density of hornbills in one protected area, four reserved forests and two unclassed forests in eastern Arunachal Pradesh. The state-wide survey showed that the mean rate of encounter of rufous-necked hornbills Aceros nipalensis was four times higher in protected areas than in reserved forests and 22 times higher in protected areas than in unclassed forests. The mean rate of encounter of wreathed hornbills Rhyticeros undulatus was twice as high in protected areas as in reserved forests and eight times higher in protected areas than in unclassed forests. The densities of rufous-necked hornbill were higher inside protected areas, whereas the densities of great hornbill Buceros bicornis and wreathed hornbill were similar inside and outside protected areas. Key informant surveys revealed possible extirpation of some hornbill species at sites in two protected areas and three unclassed forests. These results highlight a paradoxical situation where individual populations of hornbills are being lost even in some legally protected habitat, whereas they continue to persist over most of the landscape. Better protection within protected areas and creative community- based conservation efforts elsewhere are necessary to maintain hornbill populations in this biodiversity-rich region.

  • Journal Article
    Perceptions of priority issues in the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems in India
    Varma, V, Ratnam, J, and many others, including, from NCF, Anand M Osuri, M D Madhusudan, Kavita Isvaran, Jagdish Krishnaswamy, Raman Kumar, Nisha Owen, Suhel Quader
    Biological Conservation, 187: 201-211

    PDF, 886 KB

    Online link

    We report on the results of a country-wide survey of people’s perceptions of issues relating to the con- servation of biodiversity and ecosystems in India. Our survey, mainly conducted online, yielded 572 respondents, mostly among educated, urban and sub-urban citizens interested in ecological and environ- mental issues. 3160 ‘‘raw’’ questions generated by the survey were iteratively processed by a group of ecologists, environmental and conservation scientists to produce the primary result of this study: a sum- marized list of 152 priority questions for the conservation of India’s biodiversity and ecosystems, which range across 17 broad thematic classes. Of these, three thematic classes—‘‘Policy and Governance’’, ‘‘Biodiversity and Endangered Species’’ and ‘‘Protection and Conservation’’—accounted for the largest number of questions. A comparative analysis of the results of this study with those from similar studies in other regions brought out interesting regional differences in the thematic classes of questions that were emphasized and suggest that local context plays a large role in determining emergent themes. We believe that the ready list of priority issues generated by this study can be a useful guiding framework for conservation practitioners, researchers, citizens, policy makers and funders to focus their resources and efforts in India’s conservation research, action and funding landscape.

  • Report
    Tigers of Malai Mahadeshwara and Cauvery Landscape
    November 2015

    PDF, 5.13 MB

    Report on tiger numbers in the dry forests in the confluence of Western and Eastern Ghats in southern India

  • Book Chapter
    Nature Without Borders: An Introduction
    Mahesh Rangarajan, M D Madhusudan, Ghazala Shahabuddin
    Pages 1-40 in Rangarajan, M., Madhusudan, M. D., & Shahabuddin, G. (eds.) Nature Without Borders. Orient Blackswan.
  • Book
    Nature Without Borders
    Mahesh Rangarajan, M D Madhusudan, Ghazala Shahabuddin
    Orient Blackswan

    Nature Without Borders explores the ways in which conservation of biodiversity can coexist with human actions and interests through a series of different essays. While wildlife conservation in India has traditionally depended on fencing off fragments of areas and habitats and guarding them against human encroachment, such an approach is limited in value, given that formally designated Protected Areas occupy a very small proportion of territory and that nature and natural processes transcend human boundaries and cannot be contained within the borders of nature reserves. Effective conservation, therefore, cannot ever depend on limiting or excluding human activity when habitats and environments themselves have porous boundaries.

    Recent research, moreover, shows that effective conservation efforts can occur beyond the borders of Protected Areas and within human settlements. This eclectic collection of essays explores this more inclusive form of conservation through case studies that focus on different species, different environments (whether urban or rural), and different social and political constituencies from local farming or fishing communities to the educated middle class to corporate interests and the state. The essays range from overfishing along the Indian shoreline to the fate of the Gangetic river dolphin and from Sarus Cranes in the rice fields of Uttar Pradesh to the enigmatic snow leopard in the Himalayas. They explore the pastures of the Deccan plateau and the plantations of the Western Ghats as well as the lakes of Bengaluru and urban forests in Delhi. In sum, they offer readers insight into the scope of inclusive conservation that adapts its principles and practices to human activity across a diversity of environments and contexts.

    This book will be of interests to students and scholars of ecology and environmental studies, environmental history and sociology. It will also be of interest to nature and conservation specialists and activists as well as policy makers and planners.

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