Divya Mudappa

Scientist, Western Ghats


My primary research interests is in tropical ecology, particularly rainforests and applied ecological subjects such as restoration ecology and conservation biology. I have continuing academic interests in the fields of plant-animal interactions (particularly frugivory and seed dispersal) and animal behaviour.

Hornbills and small carnivores are the animal groups I study and specialize in. I studied the Malabar Grey Hornbill for my Master's dissertation (Salim Ali School of Ecology, Pondicherry University), followed by other studies on hornbills, including nearly a decade of nest monitoring, distribution and abundance surveys along the Western Ghats, and effects of rainforest fragmentation on hornbills. My doctoral thesis (Bharathiar University, Coimbatore) was on the ecology and conservation of the endemic and nocturnal brown palm civet, a frugivorous small carnivore in the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats.

The broad goal and long-term plan of my research activities is to improve the scientific understanding of the patterns and processes in tropical ecosystems and to use this knowledge for implementation of conservation programmes that would benefit both wildlife and local communities.


Varattuparai 201

Fostering eco-friendly plantations

Linking sustainable agriculture and conservation in plantation landscapes

Gh in flight

Hornbill hotspots

Hornbill distribution and conservation threats


Living with leopards

Carnivore, conflicts, and conservation in the Anamalai hills


Nurturing nature appreciation

Rekindling conservation awareness and connections with nature


Of forests and farms

Conserving wildlife in forests and plantations in the landscape


Otters in troubled waters?

Otters in the Kaveri - sharing space with riverine fisheries and sand mining

Elephant 1

Reviving the rainforest

Ecological restoration of degraded rainforest in the Anamalai hills

Ltm kalyan 1020

Towards wildlife-friendly roads

Studying and reducing impacts of roads on wildlife in the Anamalai hills


Whittled-down woods

Plant communities and invasive species in forest fragments

Ltm with infant

Wildlife in rainforest fragments

Life in the treetops and undergrowth in rainforest remnants


  • Popular Article
    Hornbills: the feathered foresters.
    Mudappa, D. 2016. JLR Explore, 15 May 2016.

    Most of us are familiar with charismatic mammals such as tigers, elephants and apes. And there are charismatic species amongst birds too: bustards, cranes, eagles. But in the Asian and African tropics are birds that gain charisma from their large size, spectacular appearance, and extraordinary breeding habits: the hornbills.

    Read here: http://jlrexplore.com/explore/focus/hornbills

  • Popular Article
    Rātriñcaranmār [In Malayalam: Night rangers, article on small carnivores].
    Koodu, October 4(5): 70-72.

    PDF, 496 KB

  • Journal Article
    Range extension of the endangered Salim Ali’s Fruit Bat Latidens salimalii (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in the Anamalai Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Claire F R Wordley, Eleni K Foui, Divya Mudappa, Mahesh Sankaran, J. D. Altringham
    Journal of Threatened Taxa 8: 9486-9490. http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.2796.8.12.9486-9490
  • Popular Article
    Restoring the fabric
    Sanctuary Asia, June 2015, 35(6): 53.

    PNG, 339 KB

  • Popular Article
    When a million turtles land

    JPG, 1020 KB

    In a small coastal town in India, every year hundreds of thousands of turtles come en-masse to nest in a small stretch of beach.


  • Journal Article
    Invasive alien species in relation to edges and forest structure in tropical rainforest fragments of the Western Ghats
    Tropical Ecology 56: 233-244

    PDF, 1.03 MB

    The impact of invasive alien species on native ecosystems is a major conservation issue in the tropics. This study in the rainforest fragments of Anamalai hills, in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, assessed the effects of distance from edges and forest structure on the occurrence and abundance of three invasive alien species (Chromolaena odorata, Lantana camara, and Maesopsis eminii). Replicate line transects were laid from the edges into the interiors of four fragments varying in disturbance level and area (32 ha – 200 ha). Densities of alien species in the protected site were lower than in the three disturbed fragments. Maesopsis eminii occurred at highest density (382 trees/ha) in the highly disturbed site where it also showed prolific regeneration (1510 saplings/ha). The invasive alien species showed no clear edge-to-interior pattern, instead their abundance appeared to be localized and related in a site-specific manner to disturbances such as presence of Eucalyptus plantation, canopy openings, and trails.

    PDF: http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_56_2/8%20Joshi%20Mudappa%20and%20Raman.pdf

  • Journal Article
    Landscape scale habitat suitability modelling of bats in the Western Ghats of India:Bats like something in their tea
    Claire F R Wordley, Mahesh Sankaran, Divya Mudappa, John D Altringham
    Biological Conservation 191: 529-536.

    PDF, 1.92 MB

    To conserve biodiversity it is imperative that we understand how different species respond to land use change, and determine the scales at which habitat changes affect species' persistence. We used habitat suitability models (HSMs) at spatial scales from 100–4000 m to address these concerns for bats in the Western Ghats of India, a biodiversity hotspot of global importance where the habitat requirements of bats are poorly understood. We used acoustic and capture data to build fine scale HSMs for ten species (Hesperoptenus tickelli, Miniopterus fuliginosus, Miniopterus pusillus, Myotis horsfieldii, Pipistrellus ceylonicus, Megaderma spasma, Hipposideros pomona, Rhinolophus beddomei, Rhinolophus indorouxii and Rhinolophus lepidus) in a tea-dominated landscape. Small (100–500 m) scale habitat variables (e.g. percentage tea plantation cover) and distances to habitat features (e.g. distance to water) were the strongest predictors of bat occurrence, likely due to their high mobility, which enables them to exploit even small or isolated foraging areas. Most species showed a positive response to coffee plantations grown under native shade and to forest fragments, but a negative response to more heavily modified tea plantations. Two species were never recorded in tea plantations. This is the first study of bats in tea planta- tions globally, and the first ecological Old World bat study to combine acoustic and capture data. Our results suggest that although bats respond negatively to tea plantations, tea-dominated landscapes that also contain forest fragments and shade coffee can nevertheless support many bat species.

  • Journal Article
    Prey abundance and leopard diet in a plantation and rainforest landscape, Anamalai Hills, Western Ghats
    Current Science 109: 323-330.

    PDF, 3.54 MB

    Leopards use a wide range of habitats from natural forests to plantations in human-dominated landscapes. Within interface areas, understanding leopard ecology and diet can help in conservation management and conflict avoidance. In a fragmented rainforest and plantation landscape in southern India, we examined diet of large carnivores (with a focus on leopards) using scat analysis with DNA-based identification of predator species, and estimated relative abundance of prey species in different land uses through transect surveys. Large carnivores predominantly consumed wild prey species (98.1%) and domestic prey species contributed <2% to overall prey biomass. For leopards, four wild prey species (Indian muntjac, Indian spotted chevrotain, sambar and Indian porcupine) contributed 95.1% of prey biomass, with the rest being minor wild prey species (no livestock in identified scats). Wild prey species occurred across the landscape but varied in relative abundance by land-use type, with forest fragments supporting higher abundance of many species relative to tea and coffee plantations. As large carnivores mainly depend on wild prey and rainforest fragments act as refuges for these mammals within the tea and coffee plantations, it is important to continue to retain or restore these forest fragments.

    PDF: http://www.currentscience.ac.in/Volumes/109/02/0323.pdf

  • Book Chapter
    Restoring nature: wildlife conservation in landscapes fragmented by plantation crops in India.
    Pages 178-214. In Nature Without Borders (Eds. Mahesh Rangarajan, MD Madhusudan & Ghazala Shahabuddin), Orient Blackswan, New Delhi.
  • Journal Article
    A case of colour aberration in Stripe-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis in the Western Ghats, India
    Small Carnivore Conservation 50: 76-77.

    PDF, 343 KB

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